European Countries

Facts about Italy, France and England

Italy


  • Italy - Italian Republic - Italia
  • The Government Type: Republic
  • Leader and Title: Chief of State - President Giorgio Napolitano (since 2006), Head of Government - Prime Minister Enrico Letta (since 2013)
  • Limited Form of Government
  • European Union member: Founding member (1952)
  • Current gov’t event or concern:The new centre-left leader reaches an accord with his biggest opponent that, if it passes, could give him full political power to reform Italy
  • Historical political event:1804- Napoleon declared himself the emperor of Italy
  • Historical monument: Colosseum in Rome
  • A Person who changed history and how: Pope Francis - First Pope from the Americas, Michelangelo as an Master of all of the Arts.
  • Population: 61,482,297 (July 2013 est.)
  • % arable land: was last measured at 23.12 in 2011
  • Agriculture: fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
  • Example of Human Environment Interaction: they adapted to the mountains like skiing and planting crops in the south.
  • GDP: $1.987 Trillion (2012)
  • GDP per capita: $29,800
  • Currency: Euro
  • Exchange rate to US dollars: 1.36
  • Major economic activities: Tourism and the service industry
  • Famous brands of the country: #1 is Ferrari - #2 Gucci
  • Language: Italian
  • Religion: Christianity with the majority being Roman Catholic
  • Famous landmarks: Vatican, Colosseum, Leaning Tower of Pisa, Roman Forum, Pompeii, Pantheon, Venice Canals
  • Cultural foods: Pasta, Pizza, Gelato
  • Music / Literature: Opera was started in Italy in the 17th century.
  • Leondardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael were famous Italian artists.
  • St. Francis of Assisi was the first to write in another language other than Latin and Dante's Divina Commedia was considered a literary masterpiece.
  • Location: Southern Europe, north of the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Climate: Northern Italy has very cold winters and very hot summers. Central Italy is milder. Southern Italy does not have harsh winters or summers and is more like spring and fall temperatures.
  • Topography: Italy has the Alps to the north and the Apennine Mountain Range down the center of the boot shape which is a peninsula. It has water on 3 sides and has two major islands off of the mainland.

France


  • France - French Republic
  • The Government Type: Republic
  • Leader and Title: Chief of State: President Francois Hollande (since 2012)
  • Head of Government: Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault (since 2012)
  • Limited Form of Government
  • European Union member: Founding member (1952)
  • Current gov’t event or concern: The day-long conference, organized by Keren Kayemeth LeIsrael- Jewish National Fund in Paris on Sunday aspired to shed another light on life in Israel.
  • Historical political event: 1190- Third Crusade 3rd Crusade led by Richard the Lionheart of England, Philip II of France, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I. Saladin manages to unite the Muslim world and recapture Jerusalem, sparking the fourth Crusade
  • Historical monument: Eiffel Tower
  • A Person who changed history and how: Joan of Arc -Martyr, saint and military leader Joan of Arc, acting under divine guidance, led the French army to victory over the British during the Hundred Years' War. and Napolean Bonaparte, Emperor of the French 1804-1815. He was a military general who became the first emperor of France. His drive for military expansion changed the world.
  • Population: 65,951,611 (July 2013 est.)
  • % arable land: last measured at 33.54 in 2011
  • Agriculture: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish
  • Example of Human Environment Interaction: They have coal, iron ore, bauxide, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorospar, gypsum, timber and fish. They have a lot of dirty water and they have made mostly cities in France. Although they still have farmland.
  • GDP: $2.238 trillion (2012 est.)
  • GDP per capita: $35,300 (2012 est.)
  • Currency: Euro
  • Exchange rate to US dollars: 1.36
  • Major economic activities: Tourism and government privatization of businesses such as Air France, France Telecom and Renault.
  • Famous brands of the country: Louis Vuitton, Christian Dior, Perrier, Renault, Peugeot
  • Language: French
  • Religion: Roman Catholic 83%-88%
  • Famous landmarks: Notre Dame, The Louvre, The Eiffel Tower, Chateau de Versailles, Arc de Triomphe
  • Cultural foods: Foie Gras, Baguette, Creme Brulee, Quiche, Crepes
  • Music / Literature / Arts: France has 4,300 Music Institutions including Paris Opera Ballet, Famous books include Les Miserables by Victor Hugo, The Count of Monte Cristo and The Three Musketeers both by Alexandre Dumas. Famous Artists include Claude Monet, Vincent Van Gogh.
  • Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain
  • Climate: Generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral
  • Topography: Mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east

England


  • England - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; note - Great Britain includes England, Scotland, and Wales
  • The Government Type: Constitutional Monarchy and Commonwealth realm
  • Leader and Title: Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth II (since 1952) Head of Government: Prime Minister David Cameron (since 2010)
  • Limited Form of Government
  • European Union member: 1973
  • Current gov’t event or concern: Severe weather cuts off rail links to southwest England
  • Historical political event: 1199-1216: The reign of King John (fifth son of Henry II and brother of King Richard)
  • Historical monument: Stonehenge
  • A Person who changed history and how: Winston Churchill as the Prime Minister during WWII who stood up to Hitler. William Shakespeare for his plays, sonnets and books.
  • Population: 63,395,574 (July 2013 est.)
  • % arable land: 24.88%
  • Agriculture: cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish
  • Example of Human Environment Interaction: Their ability to look at smog or pollution and their impact on the environment allow us to change and adapt. They look at them, study them, and provide educated ways to help reduce or eliminate the threat.
  • GDP: $2.443 trillion (2012 est.)
  • GDP per capita: $36,600 (2012 est.)
  • Currency: British Pound Sterling
  • Exchange rate to US dollars: 1.34
  • Major economic activities: Major Trading and Financial and Banking Center
  • Famous brands of the country: Twinings, Bentley, Jaguar, Rolls Royce, Burberry, Reebok
  • Language: English
  • Religion: Christian (Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 71.6%
  • Famous landmarks: Stonehenge, Tower of London, Big Ben, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace, White Cliffs of Dover
  • Cultural foods: Roast Beef and Yorkshire Pudding, Fish and Chips, English Crumpets, Tea
  • Music / Literature / Arts: The Beatles and the Rolling Stones are famous musical groups from England and of course One Direction (my favorite). Shakespeare is the most famous writer from England.
  • Location: Western Europe, islands - including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland - between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea; northwest of France
  • Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast
  • Topography: mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeast