African History Choice Board

By- Rachel Kim

Apartheid in South Africa

What is Apartheid?

The term ' Apartheid' means separateness of the Afrikaners, or the descendants of the Dutch. Wen people were segregated by the race in Africa, it was call Apartheid. This resulted to many blacks to suffer, and Europeans to become very wealthy. When other countries were getting more critical to racism and segregation, Apartheid began.

How were the races separated?

Apartheid sperated races by the color of their skins, which were: white, black, Asians, and coloured ( mixed). THis caused the people use separate bathrooms, schools, libraries, hospitals, and beaches. Blacks were not able to drink out of drinking fountains, and the buildings and services were better for the whites than the blacks. Blacks were often sent to homelands, which were lands that were far aways from the city, and crowded. They often did not have water, and they lived in very poor conditions.

End of Apartheid

Blacks started protesting against Apartheid. they started not working, not buying white products, and walked into "white only" areas. Also, other countries put sanctions, or refusing to trade with them, to change their policies. Also, F.W de Klerk was elected president, who let Nelson Mandela out of prison, who was the leader of ANC, or the African National Congress Youth League, to organize a nonviolent protests and to bring people of all races together and to fight for rights and freedoms. Nelson soon ended Apartheid, and became the first democratically elected president of South Africa.

Colonization in Africa

The map below shows countries that colonized Africa ; Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. All but two countries, Liberia, and Ethiopia were independent, because of a good army. The partition happened in the Berlin Conference, where Europeans met to divide the land. This happened in 1884.The Europeans were wanting to colonize Africa because they wanted to make the Africans as slaves. This led to the International slave Trade, which Portugal started. After the slaves, the Europeans wanted to colonize and spread Christianity.
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Causes and Consequences of the 21st century issues

After Africa became free from most of the European rule, Africa began to suffer from many issues such as; disease, poverty, low education, civil war, ethnic conflict, Genocide,and Famine. Genocide is —systematic and planned extermination of an entire national, racial, political, or ethnic group. One Genocide, the Rwandan Genocide, killed most of the Tutsi minority. This killed almost 800,000 people, and there were almost 2 million refugees.

Drought caused many other problems such as poverty, and famine, because there was not enough water for the people, and it killed many crops. There were civil wars and ethnic conflicts, because of the boundaries that Europe had set up.

Independence Movements


- After the Berlin Conference, Kenya was ruled by the British rule. They thought that their land was taken unlawfully. The result was that they started a secret organization called the Mau Mau, which was from 1952 to 1960, and it rebelled against the British. The group was defeated by the British in 1954, but the violence kept going to the 1950s. The fights killed many people, but only 100 of them were Europeans. Eventually, the British gave them the independence, and helped Kenya with the elections.


- After the Berlin Conference, Nigeria was also colonized by the Europeans. This made Nigeria split into 2 different colonies, which combined other Ethnic groups to be together. However, some groups did not like being together. The two colonies were treated differently, the South got new Schools, roads while the British did not spend as much money on the North than the south. By the 1940s, Nigerians had set up groups to fight against the British rule, in order to gain their rights. However, the Nigerians did not have to fight for their own independence, because the British let the Nigerians vote for their own leader in the 1940s to the 1950s.

South Africa

- When Europeans settled in South Africa, they used the Africans as slaves, or send them as slaves to other countries, such as Asia. The Europeans thought that if a person has a darker skin color than them, it meant that they were lower than them. Eventually, they called this system racism, because it was separating the races. The British and the dutch had found gold and diamonds, and fought over these resources. Even though South Africans tried to fight back ,they did not succeed. After the Boar war, ( a war fought with Britain and Dutch), Britain took control of the land. Under the British war, Africans could not vote. This led to Apartheid.

Nationalism- having strong pride in one's country.

Pan Africanism- idea that there is a global African community. started in the 1800s until the 1900s.