Types of Mining

By Olivia and Morgan

Surface

Strip: The ore is very near to the surface of the land but has one or more layers of rock and filth on top of it. The trees and bushes are pushed down through bulldozers. The waste is taken to a close area and is dumped. Holes are drilled from the coal above it. Then they break up the rock and take it to a near dump. The coal is broken up by blazing which is done in narrow strips.

Open Pit: Operation that involves the digging of an open pit as a mean of gaining access to a desirable material. Open pit mining is precipitated by the analysis of the area to determine the presents of desired materials. This may be done by calculating how much of the surface material obstructing the mineral has to be moved in order to reach the desired material.

Mountain top removal: It's described as "Strip Mining on Steroids", is an extremely destructive form of mining that is devastating Appalachia. Coal companies raze an entire mountainside to rip the trees and clear brush with huge tractors. Then they use explosives to blast 800-1000 feet off the tops of mountains in order to reach thin coal which is buried deep below.

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Subsurface

Slope: The walls of a pit have a certain slope determined by the strength of the rocks mass and other factors. The conveyor belt system or track haulage, the coal is transported up to the surface in the slope tunnel. A sloping access shaft travels downwards towards desired material. This process is done by tunneling straight down or horizontally. When slope mining it will be inclined.

Drift: A type of underground mining where a tunnel is dug at the side of a hill. These are simply tunnels made in the rock, with a size and shape depending on their use.

Shaft: The earnest form of underground mining. Equipment is taken down inside the mines, using a shaft. Short tunnels are excavated from that shaft. The ore is dynamited and broken into chunks, then taken to the apex and loaded into trucks via a second shaft.

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