Each era brought new ideas as far as the architecture is concerned which is why this area has developed a lot.
The megalithic structures were the first solid structures built in the human history. The basic building material were huge stone blocks. They were transported by the human slave labour. The boulder was bounded with rope, long logs were rolled under it, and it was dragged as close to the bottom of the excavated base as possible. Using wooden lever system the stones were raised and supported with wooden pegs, and then using the ropes they were set vertically. The blocks were connected by the precise notches. The most famous megalithic structures is Stonehenge raised approx. 2950 BC in England, the Great Pyramid of Cheops built in ca. 2560 BC in Egypt.
The antiquity was the next era which changed the architecture significantly. Rome was the city where the antique architecture was developed most. It was influenced by the Hellenistic architecture. When designing buildings, the architects started to pay attention to the terrain, climatic conditions, distance from the trade routes, and a location of water source. The first storey structures were built as well as aqueducts. The most famous building from that era is the Roman Colosseum built in 82 AD.
The time has come for the Middle Ages - an era which greatly contributed to the development of the construction. The medieval architecture is divided into Romanesque and Gothic styles.
The structures in the Romanesque architecture were built of stones and lime bonded with a mortar. Flat ceilings were replaced with the barrel vaults and with the groin vaults supported by columns. The windows were small and narrow. The buildings were massive because of its defensive character.
The structures in the Gothic architecture were made of brick and sandstone. The vaults were ribbed. The windows were decorated with stained glass. The building was reinforced with buttresses and had many towers.
The architecture of Renaissance and Baroque.
The Renaissance buildings were simple and had clear form. First railings, stairs and ledges were built to underline the importance of the Renaissance. The most famous building of that era is the St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
Whereas the Baroque was full of splendor. A popular ornamental material at that time was plaster or lime with the addition of usually colorful and polished powdered marble. The most outstanding building is the Trevi Fountain.
However, the most important are the modern times when all the building materials known to a man can be used, and there is a lot of advanced machinery to be used such as a crane, an excavator or a cement mixer. The buildings seem as if they were contrary to all the laws of physics which makes them look more impressive. The most popular and most recognizable example of the modern architecture is the Sydney Opera House by Jørn Oberg Utzon.