AP Gov



We discussed state sovereignty. We went over the difference between delegated powers (for the national government) and reserved powers (for the state government).
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We went over the court cases that had an impact on federalism: McCulloch vs. Maryland, Gibbons vs. Ogden and Lopez vs. U.S.

In McCulloch vs. Maryland, the supremacy clause when reinforced when the court deemed that Maryland could not tax a branch of the national bank in their state. It was also the first use of the Necessary and Proper Clause because the national bank is not an enumerated power.

In Gibbons vs. Ogden, the national government was given the power to regulate interstate commerce.

In Lopez vs. US, the supreme court fought back against the national government, which was not able to regulate weapon possession because it is not a commerce issue. We discussed whether or not we agreed with the decision.

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We discussed horizontal federalism, which is state to state relations. We went over the Privileges and Immunities Clause, which required all states to provide the same treatment to citizens of other states without discrimination. We also talked about the Full Faith and Credit Clause, which required states to recognize the laws of other states.


We discussed the different types of federalism: dual federalism, cooperative federalism, creative federalism, and new federalism. Today we have new federalism, though all of these have been dominant at different times in history. Also, Mrs. Murat brought in layer cake and marble cake to represent dual and cooperative federalism.
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We talked about fiscal federalism, which is the process of how the government spends their money. We talked about the differences between categorical and block grants, which are two different ways the national government gives money to the state governments. A mandate is a requirement by the federal government to the states that must be fulfilled. Sometimes, money is not provided and the mandate is unfunded.