14th and 15th Amendment
The 14th Amendment the Constitution was ratified on July 9, 1868, and granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States.” Which included former slaves recently freed. In addition, it forbids states from denying any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law.” It forbids to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” By directly mentioning the role of the states, the 14th Amendment greatly expanded the protection of civil rights to all Americans and is cited in more litigation than any other amendment.
The 15th Amendment to the Constitution granted African American men the right to vote. Then by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." Although ratified on February 3, 1870, the promise of the 15th Amendment would not be fully realized for almost a century. Through the use of poll taxes, literacy tests and other means, Southern states were able to effectively disenfranchise African Americans. It would take the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 before the majority of African Americans in the South were registered to vote.
The 13th, 14th & 15th Amendments