The Subjunctive

What is the Subjunctive?

Formal Definition: Relating to or denoting a mood of verbs expressing what is imagined or wish or possible.


Concept: You will use this type of verb to explain or express your emotions, to persuade someone or of something that is expected that has not occurred yet.


*Below is a ten minute video that describes some of the forms in the Spanish subjunctive*

Present Subjunctive in Spanish (Forms)

Formula

Subject 1 Verb 1 + que + Subject 2 Verb 2



Verb 1

  • represents persuasion, emotion, doubt, denial or disbelief
  • Regularly conjugated in the indicative

Verb 2

  • the verb conjugated in the Subjunctive


Conjugations of Regular Verbs : -ER/-IR

For -er and -ir verbs, you conjugate them like this :


yo~a

tú~as

ella, él, usted~a

Nosotros~amos

Vosotros~áis

Ellas, Ellos, Ustedes~an


You will conjugate this verb by taking three steps:

1) Go to the indicative yo form: Como

2) Drop the "o" off the end: com_

3) Place the appropriate ending on the end: Coma


An example is:


Comer


yo~coma

tú~comas

ella, él, usted~coma

Nosotros~comamos

Vosotros~comáis

Ellas, Ellos, Ustedes~coman




~

Conjugations of Regular Verbs: -AR

For -ar verbs, you conjugate them like this :


yo~e

tú~es

ella, él, usted~e

Nosotros~emos

Vosotros~éis

Ellas, Ellos, Ustedes~en


You will conjugate this verb by taking three steps:

1) Go to the indicative yo form: estudio

2) Drop the "o" off the end: estudi_

3) Place the appropriate ending on the end: Estudie


An example is:


Estudiar

yo~estudie

tú~estudes

ella, él, usted~estude

Nosotros~estudemos

Vosotros~estudéis

Ellas, Ellos, Ustedes~estuden


Stem Changing Verbs- e:i

For these verbs, you replace the "e" in the stem of the verb and replace it with "i".



For example:

Pedir



yo~pida

tú~pidas

ella, él, usted~pida

Nosotros~pidamos

Vosotros~pidáis

Ellas, Ellos, Ustedes~pidan




Stem Changing Verbs- e:ie

For these verbs, you replace the "e" in the stem of the verb and replace it with "ie", but this happens the exclude the nosotros and vosotros forms of the verb.



For Example:

Pensar


yo~piense

tú~pienses

ella, él, usted~piense

Nosotros~pensemos

Vosotros~penséis

Ellas, Ellos, Ustedes~piensen


There also is another rule for stem changing verbs or this type. You will still replace the "e" in the stem of the verb and replace it with "ie", but this happens the exclude the nosotros and vosotros forms of the verb. In this case, you will just replace the "ie" and/or "e" with just an "i"


For example:

Preferir


yo~prefiera

tú~prefieras

ella, él, usted~prefiera

Nosotros~prefiramos

Vosotros~prefiráis

Ellas, Ellos, Ustedes~prefieran


*These verbs are referred to as boot verb, since when a chart is created, the shape of the stem-changing verbs, creates a boot*

Stem Changing Verbs-o:ue

For these verbs, you will replace the "o" in the stem of the verb and replace it with "ue", but this happens the exclude the nosotros and vosotros forms of the verb. In this case, you will just replace the "ue" and/or "o" with just an "u"


For example:


Dormir



yo~duerma

tú~duermas

ella, él, usted~duerma

Nosotros~durmamos

Vosotros~durmáis

Ellas, Ellos, Ustedes~duerman


*These verbs are referred to as boot verb, since when a chart is created, the shape of the stem-changing verbs, creates a boot*

Irregular Verbs: -CAR

For verbs that end in -car, you will replace the ending with -que, instead of translating with the three steps, like all the other verbs. You immediately attach this ending and then apply the endings.



For example:


Sacar



yo~saque

tú~saques

ella, él, usted~saque

Nosotros~saquemos

Vosotros~saquéis

Ellas, Ellos, Ustedes~saquen


Irregular Verbs: -GAR

For verbs that end in -gar, you will replace the ending with -gue, instead of translating with the three steps, like all the other verbs. You immediately attach this ending and then apply the endings.


For Example:


Cargar


yo~cargue

tú~cargues

ella, él, usted~cargue

Nosotros~carguemos

Vosotros~carguéis

Ellas, Ellos, Ustedes~carguen


Irregular Verbs: -ZAR

For verbs that end in -zar, you will replace the ending with -ce, instead of translating with the three steps, like all the other verbs. You immediately attach this ending and then apply the endings.



For Example:


Organizar



yo~organice

tú~organices

ella, él, usted~organice

Nosotros~organicemos

Vosotros~organiis

Ellas, Ellos, Ustedes~organicen


Irregular Verbs: -DUCIR

For verbs that end in -ducir, you will replace the ending with -duzca, instead of translating with the three steps, like all the other verbs. You immediately attach this ending and then apply the endings.



For Example:


Conducir


yo~conduzca

tú~conduzcas

ella, él, usted~conduzca

Nosotros~conduzcamos

Vosotros~conduzcáis

Ellas, Ellos, Ustedes~conduzcan