Botany Bay Ecosystem

By Itai Libman


Botany Bay is a large bay located in Sydney and is just North of Cronulla and East of Hurstville.

Biotic and Abiotic Factors

Some Biotic factors in Botany bay include:

Producers such as:

- Sea grasses (Strepweed)

- Mangroves (Grey Mangrove)

Consumers such as:

- Crabs (Red Fingered, Blue Swimmer)

- Squids (Pygmy, Dumpling)

- Octopi (Blue-lined)

- Prawns

- Fish (Weedfish, Pipefish, Goby, Leather Jacket)

- Sea Hare

Some Abiotic factors include:

- Water Depth

- Sunlight

- Salinity

- Air temperature

- pH

Human Impact

We humans have made major impacts on the Botany Bay ecosystem. Our pollution from the airport and oil refinery has caused the water to become less clean and livable for its inhabitants. Common oil spills destroy the water and suffocates the marine biology. This is not much helped by the fact that an airport with massively air-polluting planes has made even the non-water living creatures suffer. The lead we use in the area has a massive effect on the plant life in the marine environment. It destroys some of the enzymes required in photosynthesis. This slows the increase of plant population which in turn lowers the fish population and disrupts the entire food web.

Red Fingered Marsh Crab

Scientific Name - Sesarma erythrodactyla

Habitat - This crab is commonly found in areas such as mangroves salt marshes and river banks where it is on land but has easy access to water.

Diet - The RFMC (Red Fingered Marsh Crab) is mostly herbivorous, and is often found eating algae or decaying leaves, but, it is known to eat some micro-organisms hiding in the mud.

Adaptions - Male RFMCs have a leafy-green shell that allows them to camouflage with their mangrove surroundings. Like most other crabs, RMFCs dig holes in the mud to hide and keep dry. When in these holes, the crabs can block any predators that were planning on following them with their pincers.

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Pygmy Squid

Scientific Name - Idiosepius notoides

Habitat - Pygmy squids are found in sea-grass beds in bays and inlets

Diet - Pygmy squids hunt small crustaceans in their habitat by hiding and ambushing them. They sneak around behind the animal and then paralyze it with a single bite.

Adaptations - Pygmy squids have special glue glands in their skin that let them stick to sea-grass leaves. This, along with their extremely small size, is a very good form of camouflage.

Food Web

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YourDictionary. 2016. Examples of Biotic Factors. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 September 2016]

. 2016. Abiotic Factors of an Ecosystem: Definition & Examples - Video & Lesson Transcript | [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 September 2016]. 2016. Human Impacts on Botany Bay by Loizos Loizou on Prezi. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 September 2016].

Pamela Melrose. 2016. Red-fingered Marsh Crab - Georges River EEC. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 September 2016]

Southern Pygmy Squid – Idiosepius notoides Berry, 1921 - Australian Museum. 2016. Southern Pygmy Squid – Idiosepius notoides Berry, 1921 - Australian Museum. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 September 2016].


These sources are reliable as they have been checked with other sites.