Mid-Year Review

Chemistry, Earth History, Infectious Diseases

Chemistry-8.p.1- Understand the properties matter and changes the occur when matter interacts in an open and closed container.

Physical Properties- A characteristic that you can observe without changing the composition of the substance.

Chemical Properties- A characteristic that you can only observe by changing the identity of the substance.

Physical change- Any change that does not involve a change in the substance's chemical identity.

Chemical change- Any change in matter that results in the formation of a new chemical substance.

Elements- Made up of atoms cannot be separated into simpler form. Ex: Oxygen, sodium

Compound- Made up of 2 or more atoms of different elements that are bonded together. Ex: H2O

Mixtures- Combination of 2 or more pure substances that are held together by physical forces, not chemical.

Periodic Table- Is organized by increasing atomic numbers.

Groups- The vertical rows of elements on the periodic Table.

Periods- The horizontal rows of elements on the periodic table.

Metals-A substance in its pure state, as distinguished from alloys.

Non-Metals- An element without metallic properties.

Metalliods- An element that has both metallic and nonmetallic properties.

Atomic Number- The mass of an isotope of an element.

Atomic Mass- The mass of an isotope element.

protons- Positive charged element particle that is a fundamental of a atomic nuclei.

Neutrons- An element particle having no charge.

Electrons- An element particle that is a fundamental constituent of matter.

Law of conversation of mass- systems closed to all transfers of matter and energy must remain constant over time.

Earth History

Law of superposition- Young rocks on top and older rocks at the bottom.

Index Fossils- A fossil that is useful for dating and correlating the strata in which it is found.

Ice Cores- Sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet.

Geologic Time Scale- A system of chronological measurement that relates stratigraphy to time.

Relative dating-Determining the relative order of past events, without necessarily determining their absolute age.

Absolute dating- Process of determining an approximate age in archaeology and geology.

Half-life/Radioactive Decay- Time required for one half the atoms of a given amount of a radioactive substance to disintegrate.

Infectious diseases

Microorganisms- A microscopic organism, especially a bacterium, virus, or fungus.

Virus-An invective agent that consists of a nucleic acid in a protein coat.

Bacteria-Microscopic living organisms,usually one-celled,that can be found everywhere.

Fungi- Single-celled organisms that live by decomposing and absorbing organic material.

Parasite-An organism that lives on or in an organism of another species, known as the host, from the body of which it obtains nutriment.

Epidemic- An outbreak of an infectious disease that only influences a small population.

Pandemic- A world-wide out break of an infectious disease.

Prevention- Vaccines(viruses)

Treatment- Antibiotics(bacterial infections)

Biotechnology- The use of living cells (bacteria, ect) to make useful products.

Careers- Biochemist; Biophysicist; Microbiologist