GEOLOGY

BY JOHNATHAN MIRON

DEFINITION OF GEOLOGY

The science that deals with the earth's physical structure and substance, its history, and the processes that act on it.

TYPES OF ROCKS

The 3 main types of rocks are...
  • Igneous: Formed by the cooling of magma.
  • Metamorphic: Formed by heat and pressure.
  • Sedimentary: Formed by compacting.
Igneous Rock Facts


  • The word 'Igneous' comes from the Latin word ‘Ignis’, which means fire.
  • Many roads are made from crushed igneous rock .
  • There are over 700 different types of igneous rocks.
  • Igneous rocks contain many minerals that help plants grow.
  • Most of the earth’s crust is made out of igneous rock.
  • Most of the earth’s crust is made out of igneous rock.


Metamorphic Rock Facts


  • Uplift and erosion help bring metamorphic rock to the Earth's surface
  • Metamorphic rocks have been changed over time by extreme pressure and heat.
  • These rocks are classified by their textures.
  • Metamorphic rocks cannot contain fossils as the high pressure in the rock as well as high temperatures erases the fossils.


Sedimentary Rock Facts


  • Primary sedimentary structures (bedding, lamination, ripple marks) are formed during sediment deposition, where secondary structures (trace fossils, sole marks, mudcracks) are formed after sediment deposition
  • The sediment is compressed over a long period of time before consolidating into solid layers of rock
  • Sedimentary rocks are formed through deposition, solidification, compacting and erosion of sediment which is reffered to weathering.

QUICK FACT

Rocks are classified by how they are formed.

Types of Rocks & Rocks Cycle Video for Kids by makemegenius.com

THE ROCK CYCLE

The rock cycle is a cycle that displays all the 3-5 different types of rocks (sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic, sediment and magma) and how they are formed.


What could happen to a rock after a million years?

After a million years, a rock would repetitively transform into all the different formations that is inside the rock cycle. All this would be caused by certain effects... e.g. compacting, melting, cooling, weathering and heat/pressure.



TYPES OF FORMING

There are 6 types of ways rocks can form and they are...


  • Melting
  • Cooling
  • Heat/pressure
  • Compacting
  • Weathering
Rocks Cycle video for Kids by makemegenius.com

STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

The Earth's structure consist of 4 layers and they are...
  • Crust: 0-100km thick, solid and 56-398 degrees celsius.
  • Mantle: 2900km thick, solid and 1000-2500 degrees celsius..
  • Outer Core: 2200km thick, liquid and 4000 degrees celsius..
  • Inner Core: 1200km thick, solid and 5000 degrees celsius.


QUICK FACT


Even though the inner core is the hottest part of the Earth, the pressure is so great it stays in the form of a solid.

Structure of the Earth

DIFFRENCES

  • The difference between magma and lava is that magma is found below the surface of the Earth while lava is found at the surface.
  • The difference between intrusive and extrusive rocks is that intrusive rocks are formed below the surface of the Earth while extrusive rocks are formed at the surface.
  • The difference between a dike and a sill is that dykes are formed across or vertical to the rock while sill is on horizontal cracks. However, they are both sedimentary in nature.