Civil War Admendments

By: Tierza

Dates and Purpose

The Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution was proposed in the United States Congress by December 1923. It was promoted by, Alice Paul and National Women's party, but opposed by many of their colleagues who had worked to pass the Nineteenth Amendment (women's suffrage) in 1920. The ERA would could have eliminated protective legislation compleatly which for years reformers had fought for female industrial workers. Paul was determined that women should be treated as individuals under the law just as men were alot, not as a class subject to mass government regulations.

The Reconstruction

The Reconstruction plan

Abraham Lincoln had thought about the process of restoring the Union from the earliest days of the war. His guiding principles were to accomplish the task as rapidly as possible and ignore calls for punishing the South.

secession.

The states of Louisiana, Arkansas and Tennessee rapidly acted to comply with these terms. Despite an early position showing a vindictive streak, Andrew Johnson continued Lincoln's plan for reconstruction when he took office after Lincoln's assassination. Civil government were set up, except in the state of Texas, after conventions in each state officially abolished slavery, repudiated their debts, and canceled the acts of secession. Representatives were elected to serve in Congress

Black Codes

After the Civil War white Southerners moved quickly to eliminate black people's newfound freedom. They wanted to return blacks, in effect, to their prewar status as slaves. In order to do this "legally," they passed new laws that appeared, on the surface, to be neutral and fair to all races. In actuality however, these laws were actually designed specifically to repress black people.

At first these laws were called Black Codes, but because of their deceptive nature, they eventually came to be known as the laws of Jim Crow. Jim Crow was the name of character in a minstrel show. Minstrel shows were popular during that time, and they featured white actors in "black face," or black make-up. Because of this, the name Jim Crow represented the fact that Black Codes were based on racial disguise.

South Carolina began to establish Black Codes immediately. The Constitution of 1865, passed only a few months after the Civil War ended, failed to grant African-Americans the right to vote. It also retained racial qualifications for the legislature. Consequently, black people had no power to combat the unfair laws. This was to the black people not the whites.