Turkmenistan

Max Bingman 4th Red

Culture

Turkmenistan culture varies slightly from other countries that surround it. This is because the Turkmen ancestors were nomadic tribes, where the surrounding countries ancestors were farmers. The Turkmen are related to the traditions of the Turkic-speaking oguzs, who found their reflection in literature, music, and folklore of the Turkmen. Turkmen poetry used chagatai language, which is similar to Persian, which was widely accepted in Central Asia. This was used as opposed to the widely spreading Islam Arabian writing. Turkemn are known for their great hospitality, respect for seniors, honesty, and for being caring. Even today, a stranger will be given food and drinks before being asked any questions why he is there. They have a saying that "If your neighbor is happy, you will be happy too." They also love horses, and see them as friends. Because of all these things, marriages and child births are some of the highest priorities of the Turkmen.

History

1038: Turkmens came under the rule of the Seljuq dynasty Oghuz tribes.

1874: The Transcapian military district was established.

1881: The Transcapian military district became the Transcapian Province.

1899: The Transcapian Province was made part of the governorate-general of Turkistan.

1916: The Turkmen take an active part in the revolt of 1916 against Russian rule.

1918-20: Turkmenistan was the scene of sporadic fighting between the Social Revolutionary Transcapian Provincial Government and the Bolshevik troops trying to penetrate from Tashkent in the Civil War after the Russian Revolution.

1921: The Transcapian Province is called the Turkmen Province.

Oct. 27, 1991: The republic declared independence and adopted the name Turkmenistan.

Politics

Turkmenistan has a presidential republic, where the President is both head of state and head of government, and has a multi-party system. But before 2008, the authorities only allowed one political party, the Democratic party of Turkmenistan. Every citizen must carry internal passports, noting a place of residence. This has been carried over since the Soviet era. From 1985 to his death in 2006, the Turkmenistan President was Niyazov. He had a ton of power and had his face on a bunch of everyday objects, such as banknotes and watch faces. He was given the nickname Turkmenbasy, or "Leader of all Turkmen" in 1993. After his death in 2006, the deputy prime minister Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected president in his own right on February 11, 2007. He opened up a lot of the things that Niyazov kept close, such as extending higher education from 2 years to 5 and increased contacts with the West. In 2008, the People's Council unanimously passed a resolution adopting a new constitution. This resulted in teh abolition of the cdouncil and a large increase in size of the Parlament in December 2008. It also enabled the formation of multiple politcal parties.

Geography

Turkmenistan's capital is Ashgabat, and it has an area of 169.9 square miles, and in 1990 had a population of 407,000. Some other big cities are Turkmenbasi, Mary, Turkmenabad, and Dashoguz. Turkmenistan is located at 37.9667°N, 58.3333°E, and is bordered by Uzbekistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, and the Caspian Sea. It has a continental climate and is mostly hot and dry. In winter, there are frequent rains, but it rarely ever snows. In spring, there is a little rain, but not a lot. In summer, it is dry and hot. In fall, it is mostly dry. Some major industries include cotton ginning, natural gas production, and cottonseed oil production. It's highest elevation is at 3,139m and it's lowest point is at -110m. It is a flat sandy desert with dunes. There are small mountains bordering Turkmenistan in the South next to Iran and to the West next to the Caspian Sea.

Turkmenistan Ashgabad - 2014
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