Max Bingman 4th Red
1874: The Transcapian military district was established.
1881: The Transcapian military district became the Transcapian Province.
1899: The Transcapian Province was made part of the governorate-general of Turkistan.
1916: The Turkmen take an active part in the revolt of 1916 against Russian rule.
1918-20: Turkmenistan was the scene of sporadic fighting between the Social Revolutionary Transcapian Provincial Government and the Bolshevik troops trying to penetrate from Tashkent in the Civil War after the Russian Revolution.
1921: The Transcapian Province is called the Turkmen Province.
Oct. 27, 1991: The republic declared independence and adopted the name Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistan's capital is Ashgabat, and it has an area of 169.9 square miles, and in 1990 had a population of 407,000. Some other big cities are Turkmenbasi, Mary, Turkmenabad, and Dashoguz. Turkmenistan is located at 37.9667°N, 58.3333°E, and is bordered by Uzbekistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, and the Caspian Sea. It has a continental climate and is mostly hot and dry. In winter, there are frequent rains, but it rarely ever snows. In spring, there is a little rain, but not a lot. In summer, it is dry and hot. In fall, it is mostly dry. Some major industries include cotton ginning, natural gas production, and cottonseed oil production. It's highest elevation is at 3,139m and it's lowest point is at -110m. It is a flat sandy desert with dunes. There are small mountains bordering Turkmenistan in the South next to Iran and to the West next to the Caspian Sea.