New Civil Rights
By: Carson Orange
American Indian Movement, an american indian civil rights organization, founded in Minneapolis, Minn in 1968 by Dennis Banks, Clyde Bellecourt, Eddie Benton Banai, and George Mitchell.
- The movement was founded to turn the attention of Indian people toward a renewal of spirituality which would impart the strength of resolve needed to reverse the ruinous policies of the United States, Canada, and other colonialist governments of Central and South America.
-AIM has repeatedly brought successful suit against the federal government for the protection of the rights of Native Nations guaranteed in treaties, sovereignty, the United States Constitution, and laws.
-Its original purpose was to help Indians in urban ghettos who had been displaced by government programs that had the effect of forcing them from the reservations. Its goals eventually encompassed the entire spectrum of Indian demands
- In 1972, AIM initiated “The Trail of Broken Treaties,” and a subsequent march to Washington to present the Nixon administration with a 20-point sovereignty proposal.
Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee - is a 1970 book by American writer Dee Brown about the history of Native Americans in the America west in the late nineteenth century.
-The book expresses a Native American perspective on the actions of the US government which are described as a series of injustices and betrayals.
-Its requirement that schools provide girls with equal athletic opportunities, the law applies to all educational programs that receive federal funding, and to all aspects of a school's educational system.
-The ERA, affirming the equal application of the Constitution to all persons regardless of their sex, was written in 1923 by Alice Paul, suffragist leader and founder of the National Woman's Party.
-After women’s right to vote was guaranteed by the 19th Amendment in 1920, she proposed the ERA as the next step in confirming "equal justice under law" for all citizens.
-Gloria Steinem is a writer and activist who has been involved in feminist and other social justice movements for over forty years.
She travels in this and other countries as an organizer and lecturer and is a frequent media spokeswoman on issues of equality.
she co-founded Ms. magazine, and remained one of its editors for fifteen years
As an icon in the women’s rights movement, Betty Friedan did more than write about confining gender stereotypes. she became a force for change. She co-founded the National Organization for Women in 1966, serving as its first president.
-Phyllis Schlafly is a conservative activist best known for her opposition to the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment during the 1970s.
Schlafly's 1972 article "What's Wrong with 'Equal Rights' for Women" launched her campaign against the Equal Rights Amendment.
She argued that the ERA would force women into the military, jeopardize benefits under Social Security, and weaken existing legal protections under divorce and marriage laws.
Founded in 1962 by Cesar Chavez, the United Farm Workers of America is the nation's first successful and largest farm workers union currently active in 10 states.
The UFW continues to organize in major agricultural industries across the nation.
He was a union leader and labor organizer Cesar Chavez dedicated his life to improving treatment, pay and working conditions for farm workers.
Chavez employed nonviolent means to bring attention to the plight of farm workers. He led marches, called for boycotts and went on several hunger strikes.
It is believed that Chavez's hunger strikes contributed to his death.
The farm workers demanded $1.25 per hour, and when they didn’t receive it, on September 8 nine farms were struck.
Throughout the next few weeks, more grape pickers went on strike. Thousands of workers left their jobs in the fields to picket the farms.
Before long, the growers gave in and said that all workers would receive the same amount of $1.25 per hour.
This was not sufficient for the workers. They insisted that they also needed to have a union.
Dolores Huerta is an activist and labor leader who co-founded what would become the United Farm Workers.
She created the Agricultural Workers Association in 1960 and co-founded what would become the United Farm Workers.
Texas V. Hernandez
Pete Hernandez, an agricultural worker, was indicted for the murder of Joe Espinoza by an all-Anglo grand jury in Jackson County, Texas.
Claiming that Mexican-Americans were barred from the jury commission that selected juries, and from petit juries, Hernandez' attorneys tried to quash the indictment.
Hernandez claimed that Mexican ancestry citizens were discriminated against as a special class in Jackson County.
Texas Court of Criminal Appeals found that "Mexicans are...members of and within the classification of the white race as distinguished from members of the Negro Race" and rejected the petitioners' argument that they were a "special class" under the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment.
La Raza Unida
In 1972 the First La Raza Unida Party National Convention was held, and Jose Angel Gutierrez was elected as National Chair for La Raza Unida Party.
La Raza Unida is working to support our community members having issues with substance abuse, making our school systems responsive and accountable, and other important community actions.