Theories of Ageing

Activity theory


Written in 1966 Bromley argued that elderlies demanded to disengage, however that they also had to abide ‘active’ in procedure to forbid disengagement from going too far. Bromley said: ‘It is not competent purely to grant facilities to old people. They should be educated to make use of them and restored to disregard unresponsive philosophies and fixed nature.’ Bromley argued so that it was essential to endure psychically active and control enthusiasm in life and adore the community of elses. Too many disengagement would head to ‘dullness’ and a failure of mental and physical attitudes. As people engage in activities, they are influenced by the roles they playand are assigned by society, and the rules dictated for people in those roles. As people grow older, their roles may change, and this can alter the way they feel about themselves. One area where activity theory has been applied is in the understanding of changing emotions among aging adults as they retire. Researchers have found that replacing employment with activity meaningful to the individual can improve quality of life, as people benefit from having defined roles and rules in their lives.


Continuity theory

Continuity Theory (Atchley, 1989) forces the consequence of enduring as the character you have continually been. For a lot of people this may concern enduring with interests, behavior and social contacts from the past. The relevant thing is that people can remain to grow a constitutional touch of self-esteem and self-concept. Collection of memories of the past may be vital because they can support a person to reveal their life story.

Continuity theory recommends that people will have diverse needs when it comes to activity. Some people may choose to element from social and physical activity as they see themselves as a person who is designated to retire and approve a disengaged lifestyle. Other people may have lived with active entanglement with family, friends, relatives or with hobbies and may not be capable to handle without staying active. Few people can disengage without failing their sense of who they are. Few people have to stay actively involved with people or occupation so that they feel that life is valuable.Continuity theory presumes that most people learn continuously from their life experiences and intentionally continue to grow and evolve in directions of their own choosing. This is a general theory that attempts to explain why continuity of ideas and lifestyles is central to the process of adult development in midlife and later and why continuity is such a common strategy for coping with changes in middle and later life.



Genetic factors are factors that would be inherited by the child from the mother and father. There are a lot of different illnesses/ diseases that can be inherited from the parents such as; cystic fibrosis, coeliac disease, asthma, brittle bone disease and a lot more. These are passed to the child through their genes. If one of these illnesses are passed on to the child like brittle bone disease then this will affect the child in a negative way because they might not be able to do things properly when they are older, like sports and exercise. It would limit their opportunities and stop them from doing things that they would later want to do. This is because if they have brittle bone disease then the persons bones would be really weak and could easily break, the bones were developed with a less amount of protein called collagen.

Biological factors influences before birth, this includes the thing that the mother of the child does while she is pregnant that would affect their baby before being born, might be if the mother decides to smoke, take drugs, have a bad diet or drink large amounts of alcohol at one time. For example if the mother drinks during pregnancy then this would have a negative effect on the babys development and could cause it to have foetal alcohol syndrome. A child born with foetal alcohol syndrome can be smaller, they could also have learning disabilities and heart defects.

Environmental factors Many factors play a role in the child's growth and development, including internal and external factors. The condition of a child's environment is an important aspect of how it progresses. Understanding the different aspects of the environment helps to ensure that the child is getting what they need to grow and develop optimally, as well as helping to recognize a potential problem. A loving and supportive environment helps children focus on learning and growing instead of having to worry about gaining acceptance and praise.

Socio-economic factors are the social and economic experiences and realities that help mould one's personality, attitudes, and lifestyle. The factors can also define regions and neighbourhoods. Law-enforcement agencies throughout the country, for example, often cite the socio-economic factor of poverty as being related to areas with high crime rates.

Lifestyle factors is the way a person lives their life that consequentially influences the quality of life. Healthy lifestyle means avoiding smoking, excessive alcohol intake, drug abuse, and overeating. A positive lifestyle factor involves including a combination of colloidal minerals, multivitamins and multi-antioxidants in the diet.


Sociological

The sociological comparison of aging is perturbed with the social appearance of both individual aging and an aging association. The individual combat of aging leans on a mixture of social factors, along with public policies and programs, economic status, social support, and health status. The influence of the field, and adequate of the theory and exploration in this area, is either precisely or indirectly determined by an establishment with population aging.

Bereavement

People die at any stage of their life. Some of them die at very young age for example in an accident, but most of them die of old age or illness. It is very hard to lose someone that you love and care about. However death is a stage which reaches to all, we can not run away from it. Loss of a partner may bring along more duties and pain. Bereavement can mean that you have to learn how to live alone as a single person. It may affect people's well being and also health. Some people can’t believe that their partner is really dead. They may get depressed and lose their eagerness to live. People get through this time very well, and also very bad. It depends on people individually. Stronger people will try to go forward but others might stay in the same place.


Psychological

Psychological theories of ageing caparison distinctive appearance of the ageing measure, but do not abode essential concerns in regards to the beliefs and complex of good nursing care. These concepts contribute no fair instruction on how to care for older people and how to guide them in their ageing technique. However, the inquiry did show that the theories enclose implementing profits that impact society and staff as regards their aspects on the ageing development and how care of older people should be drifting out. Nursing interference to guide ageing will be different confiding on the analytically context taken by nurses.