Ch. 8 Dietary Guidelines


What do the Dietary Guidelines do for Americans? What is meant by a health risk?

What is meant by a health risk? Anything which may reduce human health. These may be ranked according to high, moderate and low risk

Define Diet

a special course of food to which one restricts oneself, either to lose weight or for medical reasons.

Getting enough nutrients within your calorie needs.

4 factors that determine calorie needs

Your age , sex , metabolism , and activity level.

Define Nutrient-Dense Foods

Nutrient density is a simple way to connect nutrients with calories. More nutrients for less calories. Nutrient dense foods give you the mostnutrients for the fewest amount of calories.

How to maintain a healthy weight.

Define risk factor

any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury.

Health problems related to too much body fats

Increases the risk of many diseases, including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke, heart disease, and certain cancers.

Health risks for being underweight

  • Inhibited growth and development. This is especially true in children and teens, whose bodies need plenty of nutrients to grow and stay healthy.
  • Fragile bones
  • Weakened immune system
  • Anemia
  • Fertility issues
  • Hair loss

2 suggestions for losing weight

  • Write down what you eat for one week and you will lose weight.
  • After breakfast, stick to water.

Suggestions for being physically active every day.

Active living is a way of life that integrates physical activity into your everyday routines, such as walking to the store or biking to work.

Active living brings together urban planners, architects, transportation engineers, public health professionals, activists and other professionals to build places that encourage active living and physical activity

How much physical activity should a teen get?

It's recommended that teens get at least 1 hour of physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week. Yet physical activity tends to decline during the teen years. Many teens drop out of organized sports and participation in daily physical education classes is a thing of the past.

2 guidelines for including physical activity into your daily schedule

The science-based Guidelines recommend a total amount of physical activity per week to achieve a range of health benefits.

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), provides physical activity recommendations for people aged 6 and older and for all physical conditions.

Importance of whole grains, fruits, vegetables and milk

3 reasons these foods are healthy

They make your bones healthier and more stronger

whole grains give you energy for your body can move

fruits build your bones

2 health benefits of these foods

Vegetables are important part of healthy eating and provide a source of many nutrients, including potassium, fiber, folate (folic acid) and vitamins A, E and C. Options like broccoli, spinach, tomatoes and garlic provide additional benefits, making them a superfood!

Potassium may help to maintain healthy blood pressure. Dietary fiber from vegetables helps reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease.

3 ways to include these foods in your diet

Try to eat whole-grain breads, cereal and pasta for most of your servings from this group.

Many commercial bottled juices come in containers that hold more than 2 servings – which can add lots of sugar and calories to your daily diet.

Products made with milk provide protein and vitamins and minerals, especially calcium.

How to limit fats and cholesterol

2 types of unhealthy fats that raise cholesterol

Trans fat. & Saturated fat.

Disease that can develop from a high fat diet

The role of diet is crucial in the development and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Diet is one of the key things you can change that will impact all other cardiovascular risk factors.

Guidelines to achieve moderate total fat intake

Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat

Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars

Be choosy about carbohydrates

Food with natural sugar


Food with added sugar

Barbecue Sauce

Why should you limit your sugar intake?

Well because research shows that in addition to being a prime culprit in tooth decay, too much sugar leads to several other health problems, including:

Obesity. Foods that are high in sugar are often calorie dense and nutrient poor. Therefore, eating too many of them can easily lead to weight gain.

Several studies have recognized connections between excess consumption of sugar and obesity. For example, the Nurses’ Health Study II found that weight gain over a four-year period was highest among women who increased their sugar-sweetened soda consumption from one or fewer drinks per week to one or more drinks per day and was smallest among women who decreased their intake.

Diabetes. Similar studies have also found that excess sugar consumption leads to an increased risk for diabetes. The Nurses’ Health Study found that women consuming one or more sugar-sweetened sodas per day had an 83 percent increased risk for type 2 diabetes compared with those who consumed less than one of these beverages per month.

Nutritional deficiency. When you consume too much sugar, you “crowd out” other foods that provide important nutrients, such as fruits and vegetables. This can be especially bad for children and teenagers who need nutrients for growth. For example, if a child chooses soda over milk she is missing out on vitamin D and calcium, both of which are essential for bone health.

Unfortunately, people who are trying to make healthier choices by choosing fat-free and low-fat products are often trading a reduction in fat for an increase in sugar – which is added to make up for lost flavor. Make sure you check the label to see how much sugar, as well as fat, is in a low-fat product.

Why reduce sodium and increase potassium?

How does sodium benefit the body?

Sodium helps muscles and nerves work properly by assisting muscular contraction and transmission of nerve signals. It also helps regulate blood pressure and volume. reports having the proper amount of sodium in the body maintains an appropriate overall balance of bodily fluids. Sodium also helps sustain a regular blood pH level, an important indicator of health.

Diseases linked to excess sodium

High blood pressure


Heart Failure

Kidney Disease

Enlarged Heart Muscle

Kidney Stones


Stomach Cancer

What is the function of potassium?

Potassium is a very important mineral for the proper function of all cells, tissues, and organs in the human body. It is also an electrolyte, a substance that conducts electricity in the body, along with sodium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium. Potassium is crucial to heart function and plays a key role in skeletal and smooth muscle contraction, making it important for normal digestive and muscular function. Many foods contain potassium, including all meats, some types of fish (such as salmon, cod, and flounder), and many fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Dairy products are also good sources of potassium.

Avoid alcohol

3 reasons teens should avoid alcohol

There has been extensive study done on the development of the teenager's brain in the last twenty years and some of the findings that have come out of this research is that teenagers should not drink because the damage alcohol does to the adolescent brain could have life-long lasting effects.

These changes are most likely to occur in the brain's pre-frontal cortex, an area responsible for executive functioning: decision making, planning for the future, judgment, and controlling impulses. When teens drink:

  1. alcohol could disrupt development at a time when they're making important decisions about their lives (school, careers, relationships)

  2. alcohol can also affect how the brain disseminates information into long-term memory, a crucial element in the process of learning

  3. alcohol can affect visual-spatial functioning -- the ability to read distance properly or follow directions on a map

Why is food safety an important part of the Dietary Guidelines?

Home Food Safety educates consumers about how foodborne illness in the home is a serious health issue, and provides simple solutions and tips so Americans can easily and safely handle food in their own kitchens. Aligned with the four basic food safety principles recommended by the Dietary Guidelines — CLEAN, SEPARATE, COOK and CHILL — the following tips from Home Food Safety can reduce the risk of foodborne illness:

  1. Wash hands often.
  2. Keep raw meats and ready-to-eat foods separate.
  3. Cook to proper temperatures.
  4. Refrigerate promptly to 40 degrees Fahrenheit or below.

CLEAN: Wash Hands Often

ADA and ConAgra Foods' Home Food Safety program stresses the importance of "proper" hand washing to eliminate cases of foodborne illness and significantly reduce the spread of the common cold and flu. Wash hands for at least 20 seconds before and after preparing food — especially after handling raw seafood, meat, poultry or eggs — and before eating. Hand-washing is also important after going to the bathroom, changing diapers, coughing or sneezing, tending to someone who is sick or injured, touching animals or handling garbage.

Besides the importance of washing hands, the Dietary Guidelines remind consumers that all kitchen surfaces (including appliances, refrigerators and freezers), all produce (even if you plan to peel and cut before eating) and even reusable grocery bags and lunchboxes need to be washed thoroughly. For example, the insides of microwaves often become soiled with food, allowing bacteria to grow. Washing the inside and outside, including handles and buttons, can prevent foodborne illness.

SEPARATE: Keep Raw Meats and Ready-to-Eat Foods Separate

When juices from raw meats or germs from unclean objects accidentally touch cooked or ready-to-eat foods (such as fruits or salads), cross-contamination occurs. Remember to always use separate, clean cutting boards for raw meat, poultry and seafood, and another for ready-to-eat foods. Never place cooked food back on the same plate or cutting board that previously held raw food.

The Dietary Guidelines reiterate the importance of keeping foods separate before, during and after preparation. Always place raw fish, seafood, meat and poultry in plastic bags, and keep them separate from other foods in your grocery cart and bags. Store raw fish, seafood, meat and poultry on a shelf below the ready-to-eat foods in your refrigerator.

COOK: Cook to Proper Temperatures

Fish, seafood, meat, poultry and egg dishes should be cooked to the recommended minimum internal temperatures to destroy any potentially harmful bacteria. Use a food thermometer to ensure food is safely cooked and kept at safe temperatures until eaten. For packaged foods, follow cooking instructions carefully, and clean food thermometers with hot, soapy water before and after each use.

ADA and ConAgra Foods applaud the Dietary Guidelines for stressing how cooking temperatures also apply to microwave cooking. A microwave can cook unevenly and leave "cold spots" where harmful bacteria can survive. According to the Dietary Guidelines, "When cooking using a microwave, foods should be stirred, rotated and/or flipped periodically to help them cook evenly. Microwave cooking instructions on food packages always should be followed."

CHILL: Refrigerate Promptly to 40 Degrees Fahrenheit or Below

The Home Food Safety program reminds consumers to refrigerate foods quickly and at a proper temperature to slow the growth of bacteria and prevent foodborne illness. Keep your refrigerator at 40°F or below and your freezer at 0°F or below, and always use refrigerator and freezer thermometers to monitor these temperatures.

The Dietary Guidelines also reiterate that perishable foods are no longer safe to eat when they have been in the danger zone of 40-140°F for more than two hours (or one hour if the temperature was above 90°F). "When shopping, the two-hour window includes the amount of time food is in the grocery basket, car and on the kitchen counter."