Type 1

General Background

In type 1 diabetes the immune system starts to attack itself. The blood sugar is high due to lack of insulin. The metabolism is affected because there is little or no insulin. Without insulin the blood glucose levels become very high. It is important that people with type 1 diabetes take insulin everyday so they can survive.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Thirsty
  • Have to use the bathroom a lot
  • Bed-wetting, if you didn't wet the bed before
  • Very hungry
  • Weight loss
  • Mood changes
  • Tired and weak
  • Blurred vision

If you experience any of these symptoms contact a nurse educator for more information, primary care physician for regular check-ups, or an endocrinologist for check-ups if problems arise.

Normal and Dangerous Blood Glucose Levels

The dangers of high blood glucose level:

  • Hyperglycemia can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs
  • Increase your risk of heart disease or stroke
  • Nerve problems

Range for normal blood glucose levels:

  • Ages 6-12: 90-180
  • Ages 13-19: 90-130

Recommendations for exercise

Guidelines for Good and Bad Foods

Best choices:

  • Whole grain flour
  • Whole grains
  • Fresh vegetables
  • Low sodium or unsalted canned vegetables
  • Fresh fruit
  • Sugar free or low sugar jam
  • 100% fruit juice
  • Grilled meats
  • Beans, eggs, and nuts
  • 1% or skim milk

Worst choices

  • Regular dairy products
  • Snacks, fried in fats
  • Energy drinks, sodas, sweetened tea
  • White flour
  • Processed grains
  • Canned vegetables with lots of salt and sodium
  • Regular jam


UCSF. (n.d.). Benefits of Exercise. Retrieved November 12, 2015, from http://dtc.ucsf.edu/living-with-diabetes/activity-and-exercise/benefits-of-exercise/

Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Type 1 diabetes. Retrieved November 11, 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes/basics/symptoms/con-20019573

New York Times. (2014, July 21). Type 1 Diabetes. Retrieved November 11, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/type-1-diabetes/background.html

WebMD. (n.d.). Diabetic Food List: Best and Worst Choices. Retrieved November 12, 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/diabetic-food-list-best-worst-foods

Dowshen, S. (2013, June 01). When Blood Sugar Is Too High. Retrieved November 12, 2015, from http://kidshealth.org/teen/diabetes_center/basics/high_blood_sugar.html#

Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart for Kids and Teens. (2013, October 23). Retrieved November 12, 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/type-1-diabetes-guide/normal-blood-sugar-levels-chart-kids-teens