The History of Pharmacy

By: Gabby Camilleri and Hayden Thompson

The development of the term Pharmacist

The word 'pharmacist' was first used in England in 1834, in a novel by Lytton called The Last Days of Pompeii. But, it was also used from in 18th century with the meaning of someone who prepared and dispensed medicines. Despite that, at the beginning of the 19th century most people working in this area would have called themselves chemists and/or druggists. The terms pharmacist and pharmaceutical chemist, came later in the 1800s.

1820

The alkaloid quinine was first extracted from the bark of cinchona trees by two French chemists, Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Biename Caventou.

1874

Diamorphine or Heroin was first synthesised from morphine.

1883

First edition of The Extra Pharmacopoeia published, edited by William Martindale and Dr Wynn Westcott

1899

Aspirin, was launched by the German company.

1910

Salvarsan, the first 'magic bullet' drug, effective against syphilis was discovered by Paul Ehrlich and Dr Sahachiro Hata.

1915

Medicine stamp duty was doubled as a wartime fundraiser.

1917

The Venereal Disease Act prohibited the advertising of medicines for VD and selling
mixtures containing scheduled substances. It introduced the concept of 'prescription only' medicines.

1922

The Dangerous Drugs Act regulated the import and sale of potential 'drugs of addiction',
including the derivatives of opium, cocaine and cannabis so widely used in proprietary remedies.

1928

Penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming.

1938

The Food and Drugs Act prohibited the adulteration and mislabeling of drugs.

1939

The Cancer Act restricted the advertisement of products claiming to treat cancer.

1940

Under the Finance (No. 2) Act purchase tax was imposed on a range of goods including most drugs and medicines.

1941

The Pharmacy and Medicines Act repealed the old medicine stamp duty. It forbade the general advertisement of products claiming to treat a number of specific illnesses including Bright's disease, cataract epilepsy and TB, or to be effective in procuring an abortion. For the first time manufacturers were required to list the active ingredients of products on their packaging.

1944

The Public Health Services Act of 1944 gave authority to the Bureau of Biologics (part of the FDA) to regulate radioactive biological drug products.

1948

The National Health Service made prescription medicine available to all. Until the introduction, in the 1950s, and subsequent hefty increasing of prescription charges, proprietary medicines were no longer seen as a cheap alternative to seeing the doctor.

1961

Ibuprofen was first synthesised by a team at the Boots Pure Drug Company in December.

1962

The FDA passed the Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments which increased the level of federal control over production and testing of drugs, before being released for sale to the public.

1964

Introduction of Adverse Drug Reaction 'yellow card' scheme in reponse to the thalidomide tragedy of 1961.

1967

1st vaccine development for mumps

1970

1st vaccine developed for rubella

1974

1st vaccine developed for chicken pox

1977

Robert S. Ledley invents CAT scans

1978

1st vaccine develops for meningitis

1981

1st vaccine developed hepatits B

1983

HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is identified

1992

1st vaccine developed for hepatitis A

2006

First vaccine to target causes of cancer

2013

Alecitnb was granted Breaking Therapy Designation by the FDA for people with ALK-positive NSCLC whose disease progressed on crizotinib

2015

FDA grants grenech's Priotriy review for ALK - positive Lung Cancer