By: Cristina Ruiz

What is Ore?

Ore is a type of rock that contains minerals along with important elements like metal that can be economically extracted from the rock.


An element that conducts electricity and heat energy.


The material that lies above an area that lends itself to economical exploitation. This includes the rock, soil and ecosystem that lies above an ore body.

Types of Mining

Surface Mining

Surface Mining is a type of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed.

Subsurface Mining

Subsurface Mining are deep deposits that are removed more than 100 m below the Earth's surface. This includes removing coal, diamonds and gold.

Types of Surface Mining

Strip Mining

This is the removal of strips of soil and rock to expose the ore. This method is used when ore is close to the earth's surface and runs parallel. This method is used to extract sand or coal.

Open-Pit Mining

This is the creation of a large pit in the ground that is noticeable from the earth's surface nut it extends beneath the surface both horizontally and vertically. This method is used to extract copper.

Mountain Top Removal

This method requires miners to remove the entire top of a mountain using explosives.

Effects of Mining

Surface Mining

Significant amounts of dust from the earth moving equipment effects the air tremendously. It also effects the water by contaminating it. Surface mining also removes the soil from site. Surface mining also disrupts the habitat and causes destruction. The quality of air and water can cause problems for humans.

Subsurface Mining

This method of mining has minimal impact on air, but the emissions from fossil fuels used to power mining equipment can definitely cause problems. Acid mine drainage can effect the water as well as contamination. As for our habitat, road construction may cause problems. Employees may have hazards when it comes to their job. This includes possibility of death or respiratory disease.