Lindsay Resnick Assignment II

Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research

Different research methods are appropriate for different research questions. There is not one correct method, however, it is important to clearly understand the difference between the two major types of research.

The Right Research Design


The research design provides the structure of the research and links all of the elements of the research together. It provides the researcher the opportunity to carefully consider the research and to plan the way in which they will approach the research, for example, the following elements will be considered:

  1. sample
    1. chosen
    2. random
  2. purpose of research
  3. how will the data be collected or generated
  4. how will the data be analysed (i.e. how you got your results)
  5. explain how you will obtain your results
    1. the data obtained may affect the results
    2. clarify why you chose the research methods
    3. provide evidence that the data will be collected in a consistent and acceptable manner
    4. demonstrate that the research methods are appropriate to the research
  6. identify and acknowledge any issues or barriers and how you might go about dealing with them

Issues to consider when planning research include


  1. what is the scale of the breadth and depth you want regarding the information you need
  2. what resources do you have / are available to you?
    1. time scale
    2. existing resources
    3. existing knowledge
    4. manpower
    5. man hours
    6. support
    7. sample
    8. funding

Key Considerations When Designing ANY Study

  1. What is the focus of the investigation?
  2. For what purpose/purposes is the research being done- i.e. what will you do with the research and what do you want it to be able to decide?
  3. Is it a replication of previous research?
  4. Is it an extension of previous research?
  5. What is the prediction?
  6. Is the prediction a logical conclusion to the evidence presented in the introduction of a report?
  7. Who is / are your audience(s) for this research?
    1. funders
    2. partners
    3. board
    4. management
    5. staff
    6. volunteers
    7. service users
    8. customers
  8. What kinds of information is needed for the research?
    1. do you need to know how much/how often/when
    2. is the research about behaviours, attitudes, opinions?
    3. quantitative or qualitative information
  9. From what sources should the information be collected?
    1. documents
    2. service users
    3. customers
    4. staff
    5. management
    6. board
    7. funders
    8. partners
    9. other agencies, organisations or projects
    10. particular sample-
      1. community (location)
      2. community (commonality)
  10. How can / should the information be collected? i.e. what methodology is most appropriate
  11. What is the time scale and / or time frame for the research?
  12. What are the available resources for collecting the information?

Techniques for Analyzing Quantitative Data.

The analysis of research in any project involve summarizing the mass of data that has been collected and the presenting the results in a way that communicates the most important findings or features


The analysis of quantitative research involves the analysis of any of the following:

1. Frequencies of variables

2.Differences between variables

3. Statistical tests designed to estimate the significance of the results and the probability that they did not occur by chance



All of the above is achieve by counting and comparison

Appropriate Techniques for Analyzing Qualitative Data

Qualitative Research uses content analysis is used to analyze the data.


Content analysis involves coding and classifying data, also referred to as categorizing and indexing and the aim of context analysis is to make sense of the data collected and to highlight the important messages, features or findings.

Content analysis can be used when qualitative data has been collected through:

1. Interviews

2. Focus groups

3. Observation

4. Documentary analysis


Content analysis is the procedure for the categorization of verbal or behavioral data, for purposes of classification, summarization and tabulation.


The content can be analyzed on two levels:

1. Basic level or the manifest level: a descriptive account of the data i.e. this is what was said, but no comments or theories as to why or how

2. Higher level or latent level of analysis: a more interpretive analysis that is concerned with the response as well as what may have been inferred or implied