Ch. 16.1 study guide

World Civ.

Nicolaus Copernicus

  • says Ptolemy's theory is wrong
  • Ptolemy's theory - geocentric (earth centered)
  • Copernicus's theory - heliocentric (sun centered)

Scientific Revolution

  • time of expanded scientific discovery, math and reliance on experiments and facts to explain things.

Johannes Kepler

  • laws of Planetary Motion
-planets travel in oval shaped orbits (ellipses)

-planets move faster when they are closer to the sun

-discusses time it takes for a planet to complete an orbit around the sun

Roger Bacon

  • called Dr. Mirabilis - means wonderful teacher
  • one of first to rely on experiments and hard facts rather than religious explanations

Galileo Galilei

  • improved telescope
-proves Copernicus' theory

-church calls it invention of the devil

  • Inquisition
1. forced to renounce his findings

2. spends rest of his life under house arrest

Isaac Newton

  • universal gravitation
-all bodies attract one another

-force of attraction can be measured

- ties together movement of all things on Earth and in the universe

  • develops calculus
  • leads ppl to view world differently (less g-d controlled, more scientific)

Andreas Vesalius

  • Founder of Human Anatomy
  • 7 volume book - On the Fabric of the Human Body
-amazing illustrations, very detailed

William Harvey

  • worked on circulatory system
  • arteries away

Rene Descartes

  • questioned everything
  • Discourse on Method
-"I think, therefore I am"

  • his work on light leads to "law of refraction" which is basic foundation of optics

Francis Bacon

  • need repeated experiments + observation to trust results
  • truth through physical observation, not deductive reasoning
  • enters Cambridge University at age 12
  • enters Parliament in early 20s

Gottfried Liebnitz

  • develops calculus independent of Newton
  • known for his large hair

Robert Boyle

  • father of modern chemistry
  • chemistry
-study of composition of matter and how it changes

-temperature and pressure affect the space that a gas occupies

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

  • discovered bacteria using a microscope - called them animalcules

Joseph Priestley

  • discovered oxygen

Antoine Lavoisier

  • named oxygen
  • fire is not an element -> comes from combining a substance with oxygen
  • matter can change form but not be created nor destroyed -> law of conservation of matter

The Scientific Method

  • method of inquiry that includes carefully conducted experiments and mathematical calculations to verify the results of experiments.


  • this period is called the Scientific Revolution