Marine biologists study sponges

Different species

  • Azure vase sponge
    Callyspongia plicifera
  • Chimney sponge
    Callyspongia fallax
  • Chicken-liver sponge
    Chondrilla nucula
  • Fire sponge
    Tedania ignis
  • Orange elephant ear sponge
    Agelas clathrodes

Structure and functions of body parts

Sponges have flagella that work to set up water currents so the sponge can seperate food particles from the water. Water comes in through an inhalant pore and leaves the sponge from an exhalant pore. The cells that filter the water make up the external skin.Nearly all their cells can change function as required. Many species produce skeletons that give some structure to basically shapeless growth forms. Adult sponges are firmly attached to the seabed, while the larvae crawl across the seabed before attaching to it and developing into adults.


The sponges have adapted to be excellent filter feeders. Because sponges don't move, its body is full of pores that allow water t o enter its body cavity. Once there, the plankton is filtered out, and the water is expelled.

Life cycle

Sponges can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Sponges reproduce asexually through budding. This is when a small piece of sponge is broken off but is still able to survive and grow into another sponge.
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Sponges filter water through their pores and that's how they get their food, adult sponges don't move because they are planted into a sea bed except larvae can move around just to plant itself. Sponges live through out all the oceans and provide homes for many sea creatures. Gas exchange occurs in a sponge by simple diffusion across each cell membrane.


Sponge fossils have been found from 540 million years ago they have stayed pretty much the same throughout time. Evidence shows that sponges are more closely related to other metazoans than any other living group, but other phyla are more closely related to one another than to poriferans.