Stephany Hitchcock

The Normal Eye

When light bounces off of an object it enters the eye through the Cornea (AOA, 2015). Once it hits the Cornea the Cornea then bends the light or it refracts the light from the object (AOA, 2015). The light then goes through the pupil, which dilates allowing a certain amount of the light to pass through (AOA,2015). Look at Diagram 1 (D1) below.

Thoery of Perception

The Gestalt Theory states that we perceive things or objects a a whole before we see the part within the whole object (Gestalt Theory, n.d). For example when people are shown a picture of a tree they identify it as a tree. They then see the parts of the tree, the trunk, the branches, the leaves, the bark, etc (Gestalt Theory, n.d). If the Cornea or lens of the eye is misshaped then we not be able to perceive the whole picture of what we are looking like which can hinder us from being able to further break down the whole picture into parts. Below is another example of the Gestalt Theory of Perception.


Astigmatism is when "the lens of the eye or the cornea, which is the front surface of the eye, has an irregular curve" (Kivi, & Boskey, 2015). The above diagram (D2) shows a comparison of what a normal Cornea looks like and what a persons Cornea would look like with Astigmatism, Diagram 3 (D3) shows an actual picture of a persons eye with Astigmatism. The irregular curve of the Cornea can cause a change in the way that the light is refracted or the way that it passes through (Kivi, & Boskey, 2015). With the curvature of the Cornea or lens the light is not able to properly hit the eyes Retina (AOA, 2015).

Problems, Types, and Causes

Astigmatism can cause a persons vision to become blurry, fuzzy and even distorted (Kivi, & Boskey, 2015). There are two different types of Astigmatism that a person could have, there is Corneal Astigmatism which "happens when your cornea is misshapen" (Kivi, & Boskey, 2015). As well as Lenticular Astigmatism which "happens when your lens is misshapen" (Kivi, & Boskey, 2015). Astigmatism can caused from a couple different factors. A person can be born with it, develop it over a lifetime, or it can be brought on by injury to the eye.


There are several different ways that Astigmatism can be treated such as; eyeglasses, contact lenses, orthokeratology, and laser and other refractive surgery procedures (AOA, 2015). Eyeglasses and contact lenses are what people choose to normally go with to correct Astigmatism. If the condition is really bad they may chose to go a different route. Orthokeratology "involves the fitting of a series of rigid contact lenses to reshape the cornea, the front outer cover of the eye" (AOA, 2015). If these three options do not work then the person may opt to go with surgery to permanently correct the condition (AOA, 2015).