John Locke

Salvador Elias, Kae shimizu, Yujin Park, Mary Ling

Biography

John Locke Biography

Family History

John Locke was born on August 29 1632 (died October 28 1704) in a small cottage by a church about a few dozen miles from Bristol. after he was born, him and his family moved to a town called Pensford were Locke was raised. His father, also named John, worked in the Justice of Peace as a lawyer and a clerk and also served as a captain of cavalry for the Parlimenterian forces during the early part of the English Civil War. Both of his parents were Puritians. The Puritans were a group of English protestants in the 16th and 17 centuries.

Political Affiliations

Locke entered politics in 1672 following Shaftesbury, a founder of the Whig movement, therefore his political career is related with the Whigs. Encouraged by Shaffesbury, he developed the theory of natural rights which challenged absolute monarchy by asserting that the soverignty is deriven from individual consent. He argued that every individual has natural rights to defend their life, liberty, and property,
and the governed have a responsibility to rebel against a government that fails to protect them not only by suggestion.

Impact on Colonies

In late 18-th century, John Locke's philosophy regarding natural rights and social contract had a profound impact on American colonies. His ideas set the stage for a revoutionary spirit by providing a justification for rebelling against Great Britain, since it was seriously violating colonial citizens' natural rights, trying to raise revenue for money to pay a large debt caused by multiple wars involving the colonies. Colonial citizens were displeased with all the Acts for this taxation including the Coercive Acts named the Intolerable Acts by them, arguing the right to be taxed by their own legislatures not by Parliament where their represantaion did not present. According to Locke's theory, the government should preserve citizens' natural rights, and if these natural rights were not protected, citizens had the right to and were obligated to overthrow the government and replace it to a new one.


Thomas Paine, an English immigrant published a pamphlet titled Commen Sense of which arguments are based on the natural rights philosophy: it would be contrary to common sense to allow the British oppression to continue, thus colonial citizens were obligated to rebel against British government It had influenced the ideologies of many Americans, once thought independence from England radical and became to perceive that was only acceptable decision. This was read by the members of the Second Continental Congress and integrated into their deliberations.


At the end of the deliberations, the Congress made a decision to declare America's independence from Great Bratain. The Founding Fathers of the United States were influenced by Locke's philosophy drafted the Declaration of Independence, which reflected the ideas of liberty and natural rights used as a basis for accusing the crown and Parliament of their wrongdoing.


Three Minute Philosophy - John Locke
Locke's Theory of Knowledge

citizenship

Definition

Citizenship denotes the link between a person and a state or an association of states. Possession of citizenship is normally associated with the right to work and live in a country and to participate in political life. It is the state of being a citizen and accepting the responsibilities of it.

John Locke has demonstrated citizenship in his work and is viewed by many authors as the theorist who best exemplified the transition from ascriptive subjectship to consensual citizenship. Locke's most important work of political philosophy was the Two Treatises on Government. In his work he asserts that in the civil society, the people submit natural freedoms to the common laws of the society; in return, they receive the protection of the government. By coming together, the people create an executive power to enforce the laws and punish offenders. The people entrust these laws and the executive power with authority. One of the theory he uses, which is the social contract theory describes citizenship as "a bundle of rights -- primarily, political participation in the life of the community, the right to vote, and the right to receive certain protection from the community, as well as obligations." So in order to have the citizenship, the citizens have to take part in the society and that is what makes the community work.


Also, he states in his work that both parents have power over their children, but this power is strictly limited and lasts only as long as the children were incapable of taking control of their own affairs. This can also be referred to citizenship because if a person has one or both parents who are citizens of a given state, then the person may be a citizen of that state as well. Citizenship granted in this way is can be referred to a Latin phrase jus sanguinis, which means"right of blood" and it means that citizenship is granted based on ancestry or ethnicity, and is related to the concept of a nation state common of Europe. A person could be born outside of the physical territory of a country, but if their parents are citizens, then the child is a citizen as well. People have the citizenship from their parent(s) while under the age of 18 but after that they are able to change their citizenship status.

Integrity

Definition

Integrity is adherence to moral and ethical principles; soundness of moral character, and honesty. It is also the state of being whole, entire, or undiminished. It is to preserve the integrity of the empire. It is also a sound, unimpaired, or perfect condition.

John Locke demonstrated the qualities of integrity through his beliefs and choices. His beliefs are reflected by the "Second Treatise of Government," published in 1690. In the "Second Treatise of Government," Locke discusses the theological case for the principle of property and the need for government authority to maintain property rights. This book, although difficult to read, is a rewarding book to read especially for those in business. His ideas express that in government, just like in business, it is important to authorize and to protect in order to preserve the integrity of the government.


Locke demonstrated his incorruptible integrity also by his choices. For example, King William had insisted he become an ambassador to one of the principle courts in Europe. However, Locke declined due to the bad state of his health. The king then made him one of the lords' commissioner of trade, which he enjoyed for many years. When his health provided a residence in the country necessary, without endangering his health, he declined his commission to the king, not wanting to hold an employment when not being able to discharge its efficient duties. Locke was then upbraided for not informing some of his friends of his resignation and others to succeed in the office. When reproached of this subject, Locke replies, "I know what you tell me very well, but that was the very reason why I would not communicate my intention to any one. I received my commission generously from the king himself, and to him I resolved to restore it, that he might have the pleasure of bestowing it on some man worthy of his bounty."

Locke's' choices and beliefs such as these demonstrate his determination in keeping the integrity of his country and the government.

Bibliography

Biography

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_did_John_Locke's_theories_contribute_to_the_American_Revolution_and_Declaration_of_Independence#page3

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Locke


Citizenship

http://www.uscis.gov/files/article/chapter3.pdf

http://www.thesocialcontract.com/artman2/publish/tsc0701/article_593.shtml

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Locke

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizenship


Integrity

http://www.mspong.org/percy/integrity.htm#JohnLocke

"Integrity." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2013.

"John Locke | Center for Integrity in Business." John Locke | Center for Integrity in Business. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2013.

"The Percy Anecdotes: Anecdotes of Integrity." The Percy Anecdotes: Anecdotes of Integrity. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2013.


Videos

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