Unit 5: 1848-1877
Abbie Aguilar 1/4/16
The damage inflicted by the previous four years of the Civil war left the North and South in ruins. African Americans had to adjust to new freedoms granted by the ending of the war and Southern states had to reconcile with the Northern states in order to be reentered into the Union.
Lincoln's 10 Percent Plan (Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction-1863)
- Full presidential pardons granted to most confederates who took an oath of allegiance to the Union and the U.S Constitution and accepted the emancipation of slaves.
- A state government could be reestablished and accepted as legitimate by the U.S President as soon as at least 10 percent of the voters in the state took the loyalty oath.
Johnson's Reconstruction Policy
- It provided for the loss to vote and hold office of all former leaders and office holders of the confederacy and confederates with more than $20,000 in taxable property.
- The president also retained the power to grant "pardons" to disloyal individuals.
Congressional Reconstruction Policy (Reconstruction Acts of 1867)
- Placed the South under military occupation
- Divided South into 5 different military districts, each under control of the Union Army
- To readmit itself, an ex-confederate state had to ratify the 14th amendment and place guarantees in its constitution for granting the right to vote to all males regardless of gender.
14th and 15th Amendments
- declared that all persons born or naturalized in the U.S were citizens
- obligated the states to respect the rights of a U.S citizen and provide them with "equal protection of the laws" and "due process of law".
- Prohibited denial of suffrage by states to any citizen on the basis of race, color, or previous servitude.
This political cartoon demonstrates the 15th amendment by showing insects flying around, "bothering" or "pestering" an African American about voting. On the wings of the insects are the abbreviations of the states that voted against the ratification of the 15th amendment.
"Scalawags" and "Carpetbaggers"
The Klu Klux Klan
Force Acts of 1870 and 1871
- Banned the use of terror, force or bribery to prevent any person of any race from voting.
- Banned the KKK entirely
- Demanded military force to help enforce these laws.
The Freedmen's Bureau emerged from reconstruction, being the first kind of primitive welfare agency used to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education to freedmen and to white refugees. Through this, Americans showed unity through their actions.
During the Reconstruction Era, African Americans began entering the work force, which many Americans were not used to. Over time, citizens of America have changed their views of African Americans and rightfully given them the respect deserved.