What's On The Outside Matters Too

By: Austin Liu, Kevin Gough, & Thomas Grimmer

Integumentary System

The Integumentary system is an organ system that consists of the hair, exocrine glands, skin, and nails. The main function is to protect your body as well as help the body sense outside forces. The skin surrounds your body to protect you from damage, while the nails add another layer of protection. The hair protects your scalp and maintains body temperature.
The Integumentary System, Part 1 - Skin Deep: Crash Course A&P #6

Function

Although the skin is only a few millimeters thick, it encompasses most of the body and is by far the largest organ in the human body. A humans skin usually weighs around 10 pounds and has a surface area of nearly 20 square feet. Skin protects our body like a shield from dangerous chemicals, diseases, UV, and damage. The hair and nails come out of the skin for another layer of protection and protect us from environmental dangers. Lastly the exocrine glands make sweat, wax, and oil to help cool and moisturize the skin. The main function is to protect, regulate body temperature, and production of vitamin D.

Structure

The integumentary system has four main parts; the epidermis which is the skin, the exocrine glands which are the sweat glands, the hair, and nails.

Important Types of Cells (Also Part of Structure)

~Keratinocytes

They are epidermal cell that produces keratin.


~Melanocytes

Which is a melanin-forming cell that is found in the skin.


~Merkel Cells

They're sensory cells found in the skin that picks up contact with outside forces.

Skin

The skin is by far the largest organ in the human body, it surrounds your whole body with a total area of almost 20 square feet. The skin protects your body like a shield from harmful diseases, physical damage, and UV light. The skin is suppose to protect from any out side forces. The skin is composed of three layers that do different thing to help protect the body. The skin also has this protien called keratin which is meant to help protect the underlining skin.

Layers of Skin

There are three layers of skin-


The first is the epidermis, which makes new skin cells, give the skin it's color, and protection of your body.


The second layer is the dermis, which makes sweat, helps you feel, it grows your hair, also brings blood to the skin.


The last layer is the subcutaneous fat, which stores your fat, also helps make new cells, it also helps the blood vessels, and is attached to the dermis.

Hair

Hair is made of columns of constrained pieces of dead keratinocytes found on most of the body. There are a few parts of the body that are hairless including the lips, bottom of the feet, and the palms of your hands. The hair protects the body from UV radiation by blocking the sunlight from hitting the skin. Body hair also traps warm air around the body to insulate. The hair can be broken down into three parts, the follicle, shaft, and root. Hair also has smooth muscles that helps the glands in the hair called arrector pili.

Nails

Nails are made of sheets of keratinocytes and are found on the ends of toes and fingers. These nails help add another layer of protection and help grab small objects. There are three parts to a nail, the root, body, and free edge. The root is the root of the nail found under the skin, the body is the visible part of the nail, and lastly the free edge if the last bit of the nail that grows past the finger or toe.

Related Diseases

Skin cancer-

The abnormal growth of skin cells, usually caused by too much exposure to uv light. The most common form of skin cancer is basal cell carcinoma.

Warts-

Warts are non cancerous skin growths that happen when a virus infects the top layer of skin

Eczema-

When the skin inflames or swells up

Acne-

Acne happens when your hair follicles gets plugged with dead skin and oil.

Vitiligo-

A disease that causes the loss of skin color in areas.

Psoriasis-

A disease that changes the life cycle of skin, then causes cells skin to rapidly build up.

Other Systems Interactions

The Integementary system interacts with the immune system, nervous system, circulatory system, and digestive system.


Immune system-

Within the skin there are small glands of oils that are used as small barriers to help stop infection. This is the first line of defense against infections.


Nervous System-

The skin is filled with nuerons that help the nervous system. The skin is what has all the feelings on the outside of the body, so it is what senses all the outside forces.


Circulatory System-

Capillaries are in the skin and every time anything is injected into the skin it goes into he blood stream. Usually this happens when you are getting a shot for medication.


Digestive System-

The skin helps the digestive system by giving it vitamin D from the sun. The vitamins enter the blood stream through the capullary network in the skin. Also the digestive system makes the oils and fats that are in the skin.

Other Facts

~ Almost monthly, a new layer of skin grows on your body.

~ The average number of hair strands on your head is around 120,000 per.

~ On average, your hair grows about one centimeter per month.

~ The average surface area of an adult's skin is about 20 sq ft.

~ Toenails and fingernails grow about a half millimeter per week, so about 2 millimeters per month.

~Melanocytes is what makes the skin it's color.

~Sudoriferous glands help with respiration.

~Third degree burns is when the epidermis is completely burns and some of the dermis.

Work Cited

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"The Integumentary System." UXL Complete Health Resource. 2000. "The Integumentary System." Encyclopedia.com. HighBeam Research, 01 Jan. 2000. Web. 22 Mar. 2015.

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"Psoriasis." Definition. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.

"Acne." Definition. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.

"Common Warts: Learn About Treatment and Home Remedies."MedicineNet. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.

"Eczema and Your Skin | Eczema Types, Symptoms, Causes, and More."WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015.

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"Integumentary System." - Science NetLinks. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2015.