# Mr.Horner's Class 6 Week Review

## The First Six Weeks

During the first six weeks, I learned a bunch of different things, Longitude and Latitude, types of maps, climate, forms of government, different levels of industry, and migration. I am looking forward to the next six weeks in Social Studies!

## Longitude & Latitude

Longitude

Lines of longitude run vertically (up and down) around the Earth. These lines are called meridians. Using meridians, you can measure how far east or west your destination is. When measuring longitude, you start at a line that is named the prime meridian, the 0° point when measuring longitude. Then from the prime meridian, you go east or west depending on where you want to go on the globe.

Latitude

Latitude lines run horizontally on the map or globe and measure how far your destination is north or south. Lines of latitude are also referred to as parallels. The natural place to start when finding the latitude of your destination is to start at the equator, or the 0° point. The equator lies in the middle of the north and south poles and separates the northern hemisphere from the southern hemisphere. Starting at the equator, you go however many degrees north or south to find the latitude of your

location.

Lines of Longitude and Latitude make up an invisible grid that forms over the earth. Parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude make it easier to locate precise locations around the earth using degrees.

Watch the video below to see how you use Longitude and Latitude!

Understanding Latitude and Longitude

## Maps

3 Main Types of Maps

Physical- Physical maps show physical features of the Earth, mountains, rivers, valleys, etc.

Political- Political maps show the political boundaries of cities, states and countries.

Thematic or Special Purpose- Thematic maps, also called special purpose maps, show specific types of information, including weather, climate, temperature, animal population, etc.

We have had a map test on the seven continents and the four oceans of the world, this six weeks. In this test, we had to spell the names of the continents and oceans correctly and then write the names of the continents or the oceans where they belong. The seven continents are; Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, North America, South America, and Europe. The four oceans are the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, and Indian Oceans. We will have more map test in the future, like labeling the countries in the middle-east.

## Climate

Climate is the average weather in a place over many years. While the weather can change in just a few hours, climate takes hundreds, thousands, even millions of years to change.
Different places in the world have different climates. For example, in Antarctica the climate is cold compared to Africa. Only certain animals and bacteria can survive in the harsh climate of Antarctica. When humans were migrating to different around the world thousands of years ago, there features changed when the adapted to the different climates.

## Forms of Government

Anarchy- An Anarchy is a lawless community, in which no laws are enforced. You can do anything freely. (rob, commit murder, abuse)

Dictatorship- A dictatorship is when one person rules the area with an iron fist. Most dictators used military forces to get what they want.

Oligarchy- An oligarchy is a form of government where most political power rests with a small group of people.

Presidential- A system of government where the executive branch exists separately from a legislature.

Republic- A representative democracy in which the people's representatives, not the people themselves, vote on legislation.

Constitutional- An government which follows the laws of an written document.

Totalitarian- In an totalitarian government, the government controls every citizen ad their lives (job, house, attitudes, values, and beliefs)

Monarchy- An monarchy is ruled by a king or queen. In a monarchy, you must be blood-related to inherit the "throne".

Constitutional Monarchy- A government in which a monarch is guided by a constitution where his/her rights, duties, and responsibilities are spelled out in written law or by custom.

Absolute Monarchy- An absolute monarchy is a idealized form of monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule their country and citizens freely with no laws telling the monarchy what to do.

In class, we had to act out a form of government, my group being the anarchy government. In the activity, we could steal anything we want from other groups to try to form the tallest tower. We were so focused on stealing supplies from other groups, we barley got stated on our tower. I think that that kind of relates to an anarchy government. How? Because an anarchy is so focused on trying to stop bad things or trying to do bad things that the people seem to never compromise on how to fix their broken-down government.

## Different Levels of Industry

Industry is a social network of people who work together to run a company. Here are the steps/sections of an industry that make up an industry.

Primary- Takes out natural materials and the provides raw materials (for secondary industry) ex. mining, forestry, agriculture.

Secondary- Possesses raw materials into valuable products. Ex- Factories, processing plants, construction.

Quaternary- Gathers information. Ex- barcodes.

(I was sick the day we learn about this. Going off of what I understood the next day)

## Migration

There are two main types of migration, push migration and pull migration.

Push Migration- People are forced to leave r need to leave. This could be the result of a natural disaster, war, pollution, and climate changes.

Pull Migration- Migrating because there is something desirable, such as nice climate, land, a good job, and a better government.

What I Learned from the Migration Video

By doing cheek swabs for DNA, scientist found out that we are all related and date back to two people who lived in Africa thousands and thousands of years ago, Adam and Eve. Also from those cheek swabs, you could see how we moved about the earth. For example, Thousands of years ago, people migrated out of the continent Africa, either because of harsh climates (ice age) or just to explore. Over those years, our features changed when we adapted to different climates in different areas and after a long period of time, we were spread across the globe.