The Renaissance

The rebirth of greek and roman culture

The Crusades & Economic Foundations

The crusades stimulated trade by introducing Europeans to many desirable products. Trade promoted frequent contacts with Byzantine and Muslims empires. New economic institutions developed.

Italian City-States

The main Italian city states were Florence, Venice, Genoa. They had access to trade routes connecting Europe with Middle Eastern markets. And served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to northern Europe. They were governed initially as republics.

Niccolò Machiavelli

Machiavelli was a famous man from the renaissance. Machiavelli was also an early modern treatise on government. He was mostly known for his book "The Prince" where he expressed his opinions/ideas about power. He believed a ruler should have absolute power and that the end justifies the means.

Middle Ages Vs. The Renaissance: The Arts

Medieval art and literature was focused more on the church and salvation. The Renaissance was based on the popular movement humanism which is focused on individuals and worldy subjects. But it went along with christianity too.

The Introduction of the Northern Renaissance

Humanism stimulated the study of greek and roman literature and culture. Wealth in Northern Europe supported the ideas of the renaissance. Northern Renaissance merged humanist ideas with christianity. Johann Gutenburg invented the moveable type printing press which furthered the production of book and spreading ideas.

Northern Renaissance Writers & Artists

Erasmus wrote "The Praise of Folly" which made fun of people at that time. Sir Thomas Moore wrote "Utopia". Utopia is an imagined place where everything is perfect. The artists of the Northern Renaissance portrayed secular and religious subjects.