Rocks, Minerals, and Gemstones

By : Kasden Hoffman


There are many different minerals, gemstones and rocks in the world. Like emerald, ruby, quartz, marble, aquamarine etc. This smore shows many of the different rocks, minerals and gemstones found right here in our amazing world! First let's start with The Rock Cycle! :3

Igneous Rock

Igneous rock is molten rock that melted, then turned into white hot magma. As it cools, it slowly turns yellow, then many shades of red. Soon it cools and turns to igneous rock. Magma is just a mixture of melted silica, iron, sodium, potassium etc. Cooling is needed in magma because some minerals become solid at hot temperatures and others at cooler temperatures. Magma also has a lot of gases in it such as water, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide etc.

Metamorphic Rock

Metamorphic rocks form out of preexisting rocks usually called parent rocks. The parent rocks could be igneous rock, sedimentary rock, or even another metamorphic rock! There are many types of metamorphic rocks in the world. some that are clearly seen and identified as metamorphic, others needing a microscope to be identified.

Sedimentary Rock

Sedimentary rocks are formed when heavy weather breaks up big rock into sediments. These small rocks usually end up in seas, lakes, rivers, ponds etc. As the layers of small rock pile up over the years, pressure from the top layer pushes the bottom layer into rock. Sand becomes sandstone, ( hence the name SANDstone ) silt and clay become shale. These rocks and process is what makes sedimentary rock.


Amber is just fossilized resin ( which is NOT sap ). Amber has been known throughout the years because of its beautiful color. Amber came from the resin in trees that are now extinct such as the forests of the middle cretaceous time period between 10 to 100 million years ago. soon the trees fell, then were covered with sediment along with their resin, and after millions of years, the resin hardened and became Amber.


Emerald is the birthstone for people born in the month of may ( aka me and Bridgettes birthstone ). Emerald is a beautiful shade of darkish green. Emeralds are used in many types of jewelry such as rings. The Emerald stands for rebirth and love. They are one of the most rare gemstones!


Sapphire are prized for their beauty and ( Rarity ) :p

Sapphires are blue and violate in color, sometimes mistaken for a ruby for having a reddish color sometimes. The sapphire stands for sincerity, constancy, and truth. These beautiful gems are the birthstone for the people born in the month of September.

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Turquoise is a light blue colored gem that is a hydrated phosphate made of copper and aluminium. And the birthstone for December. Turquoise is a very rare gemstone the finer grade it is the more valuable. The Turquoise stone has been prized throughout the years. This beautiful gem stands for good fortune, success, and love. Real turquoise is hard to find.

Why are all Rocks, Minerals, and Gemstones not the same?

You may have heard the phrase 'rocks and minerals' at some point in your science schooling. The reason we say 'rocks and minerals' is because they are two different things. Rocks are not minerals, and minerals are not rocks.


A mineral is a solid, inorganic, naturally-formed substance that has a crystalline structure and specific chemical composition.First of all, minerals are solid and formed naturally in the earth. Natural solids can be familiar things like sand, granite, salt and wood. Our definition says that minerals are inorganic, which means that they do not consist of tissues from living things. So, that means that wood is not a mineral.


A rock is a solid, inorganic, naturally-formed substance without a particular atomic structure or chemical composition. It's probably easier to just remember that rocks are made up of two or more minerals. Examples of rocks include granite, limestone, marble, pumice, obsidian, sandstone, shale and slate. Each of these rocks consists of several different minerals, which are mixed up inside the rock through a variety of geologic processes.


Gemstones have their own science as well, called gemology, which is a branch of mineralogy. But the concept of a gemstone is based on human value judgements. A gemstone is usually defined as a highly attractive and valuable piece of cut and polished mineral that is used in jewelry or other decorations. The science of gemology studies the special physical and optical properties of this subset of the mineral world.


Garnet is found in a variety of colors but is most commonly known as the color red, and can be found all over the world. Garnet is the birthstone for the month of January and brings/stands for peace, prosperity, and good health for anyone who has garnet. It is a very popular and precious gemstone that has been used many years as a talisman by tribes. Being the birthstone for the first month of the year, it is called " The birthstone of faith "
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