Myanmar (Burma)

By: Grace H 6th period

Introduction

Myanmar, once called Burma, is a country in southeast Asia. The country covers 677,000 square kilometers. Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Thailand, and the Bay of Bengal. Mountains in the west, north, and east of Myanmar enclose the Irrawaddy River Valley. Tropical monsoons blow all throughout Myanmar. Myanmar has humid summers and very tropical weather. There's mild temperatures, and lower humidity during the winter. Yangoon is the largest city in Myanmar. The old country is full of old cultures. The Burmese have many have many old cultures. The culture of Burma (or Myanmar) has been heavily influenced by Buddhism and the Mon People. The people of Myanmar have many customs. Burmese art was based on Buddhist or Hindu cosmology and myths. Dance in Burma can be divided into dramatic, folk and village, and nat dances, each having distinct characteristics. Burmese dance has been influenced by the dance traditions of its neighbors. (especially Thailand) Burmese dancing retains unique qualities that distinguish it from other regional styles, including angular, fast-paced and energetic movements and emphasis on pose, not movement. Clothing is another part of Myanmar's culture. The people in Myanmar are very fashionable. The typical garment of the Burmese is the Indian Lungi or long Gyia sarong worn by both men and women.

Slogan- "All that glitters is not gold, but Myanmar is"

Geography and Climate of Myanmar/Burma

The climate in Burma (Myanmar) is very tropical. Tropical monsoon sweep the lowlands below 6,562 ft. The Burmese experience much cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September) they have less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, and lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April). In the highlands, the climate varies, depending on the elevation. The higher elevations are subject to heavy snowfall and bad weather.

The country has an area of 261,789 square miles. It is bordered by Bangladesh to the west, India and China to the north, and Laos and Thailand to the east. The southern portion faces the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The middle portion centers on the Irrawaddy River, with a large delta area at its mouth and the area above the delta featuring floodplains.
yanmar has many lowlands. One of the most famous ones is the Sittaung Valley, the Chindwin Valley. The Central Valley Region is ringed by steep, rugged highlands, with the country's highest point at the 5,881 m (19,295 ft). The Irrawaddy, the main river of Burma, flows from north to south through the Central Burma Basin and ends in a wide delta. The Mekong runs from the Tibetan Plateau through China's Yunnan Province entering Northeastern Burma into Laos. In the east the Salween and the Sittaung River run along the western side of the Shan Hills and the northern end of the Dawna Range. In the narrow southeastern part of Burma, the Ye, Heinze, Dawei (Tavoy), Great Tenasserim (Tanintharyi) flow into the Andaman Sea. Further south the Kraburi River forms the southern border between Thailand and Burma.

People and Culture of Myanmar

This old country has a population of 54,584,650 people! The culture of Burma (or Myanmar) has been heavily influenced by Buddhism and the Mon People. The people of Myanmar have many customs. Burmese art was based on Buddhist or Hindu cosmology and myths. Dance in Burma can be divided into dramatic, folk and village, and nat dances, each having distinct characteristics. Burmese dance has been influenced by the dance traditions of its neighbors. (especially Thailand) Burmese dancing retains unique qualities that distinguish it from other regional styles, including angular, fast-paced and energetic movements and emphasis on pose, not movement. Clothing is another part of Myanmar's culture. The people in Myanmar are very fashionable. The typical garment of the Burmese is the Indian Lungi or long Gyia sarong worn by both men and women. Many people also like to do puppet shows. They have been very popular ever since the 18th century.

The majority of the people speak Tibeto-Burman languages. Tibeto-Burman speakers in Burma can be divided into six distinct groups. The Burmish constitute (the largest of these groups by population.) Nungish speakers live in upland areas in Kachin State. The main Baric-speaking group is the Jingpho in Kachin State. The Kuki-Naga-speaking peoples include a large number of ethnic groups in the mountains along the border with India and Bangladesh. The Luish group includes the Kado, who live near the border with the Indian state of Manipur. The Karen groups live in the hills along the border with Thailand and the southern lowlands. The Lolo-speaking groups tend to be the most recent immigrants to Burma; they live in the highlands of Shan and Kachin states. About 80 percent of the population lives in rural areas. Rangoon has a population of 4 million, and Mandalay has almost 1 million residents. The ethnic composition of Rangoon and Mandalay is over-whelmingly Burmese, although these cities are also where most of the Indian population lives.The official population figure in 1995 was 44.74 million, but it may range from 41.7 million to 47 million. People have identitified 110 distinct ethnic groups, and the government recognizes 135 ethnic groups (referred to as races). The Burmese account for about 68 percent of the population. Other major ethnic groups include the Shan (about four million), Karen (about three million), Arakanese or Rakhine (about two million), Chinese (over one million), Chin (over one million), Wa (about one million), Mon (about one million), Indians and Bengalis (about one million), Jingpho (about less than one million), and Palaung (less than one million). With the exception of the Chinese, Indian, and Belgalis, each minority group occupies a relatively distinct area. The percentage of some of the ethnic groups in Burma are: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%

Government and Citizenship of Myanmar

In Burma, they have a Burmese Nationality Law. It states that there are three categories of citizens, namely citizen, associate citizen and naturalized citizen, according to the 1982 Citizenship Law. Citizens, (defined by the 1947 Constitution), are people who belong to an "indigenous race", have a grandparent from an "indigenous race", are children of citizens, or lived in British Burma around 1942. Under this law, citizens are required to obtain a National Registration Card, and non-citizens are given a Foreign Registration Card.


In Myanmar you must be 18 to vote. Anyone above 18 has the right to vote. All people are treated fairly. There are equal rights for all ethnic nationalities.


The government in Burma is a nominally civilian parliamentary. This government took place in 2011.


Primary education is officially compulsory. It lasts five years, and to continue onto secondary school, students must pass a comprehensive examination of basic subjects.



Myanmar's economy

A lot of Myanmar's economy comes from agriculture. The major agricultural produce is rice which covers about 60% of the country's total cultivated land area. Rice accounts for 97% of total food grain production by weight. Through collaboration with the IRRS. 52 modern rice varieties were released in the country between 1966 and 1997, helping increase national rice production to 14 million tons in 1987 and to 19 million tons in 1996. By 1988, modern varieties were planted on half of the country's rice fields, including 98% of the irrigated areas. Burma’s economic freedom score is 39.2, making its economy the 172nd freest in the 2013 Index.


Despite Burma's emergence as a natural gas exporter, socio-economic conditions have deteriorated under the mismanagement of the previous regime. Approximately 32% of the population lives in poverty and Burma is the poorest country in Southeast Asia


Myanmar imports many things like fabric, petroleum products, oil, fertilizer, plastics, machinery, and cement. Myanmar also exports natural gases, wood products, pulses and beans, fish, rice, clothing, jades, and gems.