The World of Physics

Karolina Gudnason

Translating Icelandic to English

  1. The astrophysicist Stephen Hawking submitted, based on quantum mechanics, a theory about that black holes emit radiation. Black holes don’t really radiate materials, this would be against the definition of black holes, but the radiation comes from just outside the black hole at the so called horizon. Usually the horizon of a black hole is its surface. It is not really a surface since it isn’t made of particles. It marks the place where the gravitation field of the black hole is powerful enough that light that goes through can’t come out anymore, it’s where the escape velocity of the black hole is the same as the speed of light.

    The principle of uncertainty in quantum mechanics stipulates that particles can be created under specific circumstances but only for a short period of time. Since energy can’t be created out of nothing are both a particle, the blue one, and its antiparticle, the red one, created. This way no surplus energy is created, the total energy is still zero. Let’s say the antiparticle, the particle with the negative energy, is pulled into the black hole but the positron escapes. In fact, only particles with positive energy can escape the black hole. Since particles in the universe with, few exceptions, are charged with positive energy has the black hole, where the red particle fell in, positive energy. When the particle is inside the total energy decreases of the black hole and consequently its mass. For an observer it is as the black hole radiates positrons even though it actually is right outside the horizon. This radiation is called the Hawking radiation.

  2. Upp úr 1970 lagði stjarneðlisfræðingurinn Stephen Hawking á grundvelli skammtafræðinnar fram kenningar um að svarthol sendi frá sér geislun. Í reynd geislar svartholið sjálft ekki frá sér efni, enda gengi það þvert á skilgreininguna á svartholi, heldur kemur geislunin frá svæðinu rétt utan við hinn svokallaða sjóndeildarflöt. Að jafnaði er litið á sjóndeildarflöt svarthols sem yfirborð þess. Flöturinn er þó ekki yfirborð í eiginlegum skilningi, það er hann er ekki gerður úr efnisögnum. Hann markar staðinn þar sem þyngdarsvið svartholsins verður nægjanlega öflugt til að ljósgeisli sem fer inn fyrir flötinn sleppur ekki þaðan aftur, það er þar sem lausnarhraði svartholsins verður jafn hraða ljóssins.
    Óvissulögmál skammtafræðinnar kveður á um að undir vissum kringumstæðum geta agnir myndast úr engu en einungis í afar skamman tíma í senn. Þar sem orka getur ekki myndast úr engu myndast bæði eind, sú bláa, og andeind hennar, sú rauða. Þannig myndast engin umframorka, það er heildarorkan er ennþá núll. Setjum sem svo að nú dragist andeindin, eindin með neikvæðu orkuna, inn í svartholið en jáeindin sleppi burt. Í raun geta einungis eindir með jákvæða orku sloppið burt frá svartholinu. Þar sem efnisagnir í alheimi eru undantekningalítið hlaðnar jákvæðri orku er svartholið, sem rauða ögnin féll inn í, með jákvæða orku. Þegar ögnin fer inn minnkar því heildarorka svartholsins og því massi þess. Athuganda sem stendur hjá virðist sem svartholið geisli frá sér jáeindinni þó hún myndist í raun rétt utan sjóndeildarflatarins. Þessi geislun kallast Hawking-geislun.
  3. I chose this text because I had a big assignment in my physics class about the Hawking radiation. This article helped me do that assignment as well. Another reason I chose it was because I thought it was very interesting.
    The first important thing I do when I translate a text, I read through it and try to understand it. Next, I translate all the more complicated words. First after that is done I start translating the whole text.

Translating English to Icelandic

  1. Þversögn upplýsinga svarhola byrjaði 1967 þegar Werner Israel sýndi frama að Schwarzschild firði var eina kyrrstæða tómarýmis svarthola lausnin. Þetta var þá allhæft að ekkert hár kennisetningunni*, eina stöðuga snúandi svarthola lausn af jöfnur Einstein Maxwell eru Kerr Newman firðin. Ekkert hár kennisetningin gáfu í skyn að allar upplýsingar um hrynjandi hlut væru týnd af utan svæðinu aðskilin af þremum varðveittum stærðum: massinn, hverfiþunganum og rafræna hleðslan.

    Tapið af upplýsingum var ekki vandamál í þessari sígilda kenningu. Sígilt svarthol myndi endast að eilífu og upplýsingarnar gætu verið hugsuð sem varðveitt að innan en bara ekki mjög algengileg. Alla vega, ástandið breyttist þegar ég uppgötvaði að skammtar áhrif myndu orsaka svarthol að geisla með stöðugt hlutfall. Að minnsta kosti í nálgunina sem ég notaði væri geislunin frá svartholinu algjörlega heitt og bæru engar upplýsingar. Þannig að hvað myndi gerast við allar þessar upplýsingar læst inni í svarthol sem gufar upp og hverfur alveg? Það virðist eins og eina leiðin að fá upplýsinganna út væri ef geislunin væri ekki akkúrat hitakennd heldur lúmskt fylgni. Enginn hefur búið til tæknibúnað sem framleiðir fylgni en eðlisfræðingar halda að það þurfi að vera til. Ef upplýsingar væru týndar í svarthol myndu hreinar skammta fasar hrörna í blandaða fasar og skammta þyngdakraftur myndi ekki vera einoka.
    *no correct Icelandic translation was found

  2. The black hole information paradox started in 1967 when Werner Israel showed that the Schwarzschild metric was the only static vacuum black hole solution. This was then generalized to the no hair theorem, the only stationary rotating black hole solutions of the Einstein Maxwell equations are the Kerr Newman metrics. The no hair theorem implied that all information about the collapsing body was lost from the outside region apart from three conserved quantities: the mass, the angular momentum, and the electric charge.
    This loss of information wasn’t a problem in the classical theory. A classical black hole would last for ever and the information could be thought of as preserved inside it, but just not very accessible. However, the situation changed when I discovered that quantum effects would cause a black hole to radiate at a steady rate. At least in the approximation I was using the radiation from the black hole would be completely thermal and would carry no information. So what would happen to all that information locked inside a black hole that evaporated away and disappeared completely? It seemed the only way the information could come out would be if the radiation was not exactly thermal but had subtle correlations. No one has found a mechanism to produce correlations but most physicists believe one must exist. If information were lost in black holes, pure quantum states would decay into mixed states and quantum gravity wouldn’t be unitary.
  3. I have been a fan of Stephen Hawking since I learned about him. Wanting to learn more about his discoveries, I found a text from one of his publications. I have not regret choosing it.
    Just like when translating the Icelandic text to English I started with reading the English text well trough. After having an idea of what it was about I started translating key words. This way I worked already through the text twice which made it familiar. Then I started translating for real.

The Interview

  1. Professor Larry Smith teaches physics and mathematics at Snow College in Utah. My dad and physics teacher here in FSu visited Snow College this last October. Professor Smith and my dad planned the trip. Since this contact already existed, I thought it could be very useful. Professor Smith turned out to be very open and answered all my questions willingly.
  2. Since when have you been interested in physics?
    What made you become interested?
    Have you ever regret studying physics? Why or why not?
    How has the world of physics changed your world?
    What do you think is most interesting in physics? Why?
    If you could meet any physicist who has ever lived, whom would you choose? Why?
    How can physics become easier and more fun?
    What advice would you give to high school student who are interested in studying physics but are not sure if they should?
  3. Professor Smith tells how his brothers studies helped him become interested in physics. He had been good with maths and decided to study physics because he thought physics was the road to truth. He tells that physics are both fun and amazing. Furthermore, he says that after understanding physics more, he also "increased [his] appreciation for God's creation". This answer shows that physics and religion can go together and not necessarily are two separated departments. In the conclusion he says that finding the beauty and passion in both mathematics and physics help becoming a good physicist.

Video 1 -The technology of touch

  1. Katherine Kuchenbecker explains in this video how her department have found three different ways of letting technology help us to feel the touch of things. She also talked about how these technologies can help us in daily lives as in our studies
  2. As I was searching for the ideal video for this assignment, the title of this video caught my eyes. As I read the description, I knew this was the one. I think it is marvellous what technology can do nowadays.

Video 2 -Could tissue engineering mean personalized medicine?

  1. Nina Tandon talks about how models of parts in our bodies can help making drugs which can help us. This saves a lot of money and time. Also through this, it can be found out which specific drug we need for our sickness. As an example don't all cancer patients need the same drugs. Often the doctors need to try different until they find one that works. Through this new technology it can be found out faster and safer.
  2. I had a trip with my physics class on the 25th of November to the University of Reykjavík. Different engineering apartments were introduced to us. I especially liked biomedical engineering. We were shown how they can print 3D organs from people to help their recovery or to help the surgeon prepare for an operation. This video reminded me of the trip and of the fascination I felt.

Video 3 -To create for ages, let's combine art and engineering

  1. Bran Ferren talks about how this church in Italy fascinated him as a kid because art and engineering was combined in a way that one thing couldn't be with the other. He talks through his video how important it is to combine the two things and not separate like many want us to do. He says that many good things can come when art and engineering are combined.
  2. I thought it was very interesting to see how someone wanted to combine art to engineering. The title made me curious, I had to find out more. It paid well off.