Acids and Bases

Ph scale

Acids

Acids is a substance which when added to water produces hydrogen ions. Acids reacts with zinc, aluminum, magnesium and form hydrogen. The model of acids are the Lewis model.

The difference between a strong and weak acid is the strong acids most of the molecules break up into solutions. Weak acids are when fewer molecules break up into ions. Some examples of strong acids are lemon juice, bleach and drain cleaner. Some examples of weak acids are vinegar, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. Some physical and chemical properties of acids are the taste, acids are very sour. Acids are electrolyte. Strong acids destroy fabric. The way you can tell if a substance is acidic is if it dissolves a pure sample of the compound in freshly distilled water.

Bases

Bases are any class of compounds that form hydroxyl ions when dissolved in water, and whose aqueous solutions reacts with acids to form salt. The model of a base of the Arrhenius. The difference between a strong and weak base is that a strong base is a base that dissociates completely into a metal ion and a hydroxide ion, and a weak base is a base that dissociates only slightly in aqueous solution. Some examples of a strong base are sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and barium hydroxide. Some examples of a weak base are ammonia, pyridine, and methylamine. Some physical and chemical properties of bases is the bitter taste, also the slippery touch, conducts electricity, it also turns red litmus to blue. The way you can tell if a substance is a base is the color respond to particular pH.

Reactions

When acids and bases react it is called neutralization reaction and it produces salt and water. A real life example of this reaction would be salt.

Measurement

The way you measure the strength of an acid and a base would be on a scale of 1-14 measuring the concentrations of pH and POh. The pH range is less than 7 is acidic, greater than 7 is basic, and 7 is neutral.

Indicators

An acid/base indicator is an indicator that changes in colors on going from acidic to basic solutions. Some examples of substances that act as indicators are universal indicators, HCL, and baking soda. Some examples of common products that can use and indicator are baking soda, and exLax, and mood lipstick. They are used as pH indicators. Indicators change colors because the chemicals in the indicators and the chemicals of the reactor are reacting with each other creating new chemicals that has color.

Acid Rain

Acid rain is precipitation containing high levels of sulfur or nitric acids. Acid rain forms by acid deposition or chemical or pollution in the air. Acid rain causes damage such as pneumonia from pollution in the air. The eastern half of the U.S is where the greatest acid rain damages are causes and this is because there are more factories so therefor there is more pollution being caused. Our suggestion on how to improve the acid rain problem is by trying to decrease how much we use and what we use so we can stop so much pollution.

Visuals of Acids

Visuals of Bases

Kelsei Cooke & Dustin Byerly 2nd period.