Language Arts 7th Grade
What We've Learned This Year: By Andres Broussard
Chapter 1: Subjects, Predicates, & Kinds of Sentences.
Ex. We're going to the store.
A sentence fragment is a group of words that looks like a sentence but does not contain both a subject and a verb or does not express a complete thought.
Ex. Going to the store.
The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.
Ex. Caleb threw the ball.
The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.
Ex. Ginny made an A on science.
The complete subject consists of all the words that tell whom or what the sentence is about.
Ex. Three dogs walking through the door.
The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject.
Ex. The boy walked.
The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject.
Ex. The kid drop the glass of water.
A compound subject consists two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb.
Ex. The boy and girl played tag.
A compound verb consists of two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject.
Ex. The boy ran and the dog ran.
A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.
I love Summer.
An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with a exclamation point.
Give me juice.
An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.
Is this healthy?
An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with a exclamation point.
Stop bullying me!
Chapter 2: Noun, Pronoun & Adjective.
The girl failed the test.
A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing or idea is generally not capitalized. A common noun names any one of a group of persons, places, things or ideas and is generally not capitalized.
Paris is wonderful.
The city is wonderful.
A concrete noun names a person, place, or thing that can be perceived by one or more of the senses (sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell). An abstract noun names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic.
A collective noun is a word that names a group.
A pronoun is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
A personal pronoun refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person), or the one spoken about (third person).
A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. An intensive pronoun emphasizes a noun or another pronoun and is unnecessary to the meaning of the sentence.
An interrogative pronoun introduces a question.
An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, a place, a thing, or idea that may or may not be specifically named.
A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause.
An adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.
The most commonly used adjectives are a, an, and the. These adjectives are called articles. A and an are called indefinite articles because they refer to any member of a general group. A is used before a word beginning with a constant sound. An is used before a word beginning with a voweling sound.
The is called the definite article because it refers to someone or something in particular.
This, that, these, and those can be used both as adjectives and as pronouns. When they modify a noun or a pronoun, they are called demonstrative adjectives. When they are used alone, they are called demonstrative pronouns.
A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun.
Chapter 3: Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, & Interjection.
An action verb is a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity.
A linking verb is a verb that expresses a state of being. A linking verb connect, or links, the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject.
A helping verb helps the main verb express action or a state of being.
A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
An intransitive verb expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action passing to a receiver, or object.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word.
A conjunction is a word that joins words or word groups.
Coordinating conjunctions join word or word groups that are used in the same way.
Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that are used in the same way.
An interjection is a word that expresses emotion.
The way the word is used in a sentence determines that part of speech it is.
Chapter 4: Direct and Indirect Objects, Subject Complements
A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.
An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word word group that sometimes appears in sentences containing direct objects.
A subject complement is a word or word group in the predicate that identifies or describes the subject.
A predicate nominative is a word or word group in a the predicate that identifies the subject.
A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.
Chapter 5: Prepositional & Verbal Phrases
A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.
An adjective phrase modifies a noun or a pronoun.
An adverb phrase modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
A participle is a verb that can be used as an adjective.
1. Present participles end in -ing.
2. Past participles usually end end in -d or -ed. Some participles are formed irregualry.
A participle phrase consists of participle together with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase is used as an adjective.
An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with to.
An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive together with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase may be used as s noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
Chapter 6: Independent & Dependent Clauses
An independent (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.
A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.
An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun.
An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
Chapter 7: Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-Complex Sentences
A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clauses.
A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.
A compound-complex sentence contains twp or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.
Chapter 8: Subject, Verb, Pronoun, & Antecedent
A verb should agree in number with its subject.
1. Singular subjects take singular verbs.
2. Plural subjects take plural verbs.
The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase following the subject.
The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something.
The following indefinite pronouns are plural: both, few, many several.
The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be either singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence.
Subjects joined by and usually take a plural verb.
Singular subjects joined by or or nor take a singular verb.
When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with subject nearer the verb.
A collective noun may be either singular or plural, depending on its meaning a sentence.
When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure that the verb agrees with it.
When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure that the verb agrees with it.
Some nouns that are plural in form take singular verbs.
An expression of an amount (a measurement, a percentage, or a fraction, for example) may be singular or plural, depending on how its is used.
Even when plural in form, the title of a creative work (such as a book, song, form, or painting), the name of an organization, or the name of a country, or city generally takes a singular verb.
Don't and doesn't should agree in number with their subject.
A pronoun should agree in number and gender with its antecedent.
Use a singular pronoun to refer to anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, on one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, or something.
Use a plural pronoun to refer to both, few, many, or several.
The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be singular or plural, depending on how they are used in a sentence.
Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor.
Use a plural pronoun to refer to tow or more antecedents joined by and.
A pronoun that refer to a collective noun has the same number as the noun.
An expression of an amount any take a singular or plural pronoun, depending, on how the expression is used.
Even when plural in form, the title of a creative work (such as a book, song, film, or painting), the name of an organization, or the name of a country or city usually takes a singular pronoun.
Chapter 9: Principal Parts, Regular and Irreuglar Verbs, Tense, & Voice.
A regular verb form its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.
An irregular verb forms its past and past participles in some way other than adding -d or -ed to the past tense.
The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or of the state of being that is expressed by the verb.
Do not change needlessly from one tense to the another.
Chapter 10: Nominative & Objective Case Forms.
The subject of a verb should be in the nominative case.
A predicate nominative should be in the nominative case.
Direct objects and indirect objects of verbs should be in the objective case.
The object of the preposition should be in the objective case.
Chapter 11: Comparison & Placement.
Adverbs make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs more specific.
The three degrees of comparison of modifiers are the sportive, the comparative, and the superlative.
1. The positive degree is used when at least one thing is being described.
2. The comparative degree is used when two things or group of things are compared.
3. The superlative degree is used when three or more things or groups of things are being compared.
Use good to modify a noun or a pronoun in most cases. Use well to modify a verb.
Use adjectives, not adverbs, after linking verbs.
Avoid using double comparisons.
Avoid using double negatives.
Place modifying words, phrases, and clauses as close as possible to the words they modify.