Attributes of learning
Basic reading skills for students in kindergarten through fifth grade
- letter sounds and words read aloud
- use of visuals to show letter and sound
- use of a software that provides multi-modal decoding lessons
- magnetic letters, or letter blocks
- word sorts that use written words and images
- direct instruction to the whole class or smaller groups
- ensure students have the foundational skills necessary to decode words, for example the understanding that words are read left to right and the relationship between letters and sounds. If students are lacking in these skills, use programs to assist with skill development.
- teach students to chunk words
- provide activities that involve word families
- repeat words and letter sounds frequently
Decoding is a necessary skill for reading and deficits in decoding have the potential of hindering a student's progress academically. Recognizing letters, and the sounds they make is a major component of reading.
- all students receive the same instruction using an evidenced based program, such as Literacy Place by Scholastic, which focuses on multiple skills.
- Students receive instruction in the classroom as a large group.
- Materials in evidenced based programs are often based on core standards and attempt to engage all different types of learners. These programs provide the baseline needed to then determine the students who are at risk of falling behind (Shapiro, 2016).
- Universal design of learning
- Students who are at risk of falling behind based on assessment data often work in smaller groups within the classroom, or in a different location.
- These students are provided this instruction in addition to the instruction they are already receiving (Shapiro, 2016).
- Teachers could use a program such as SPIRE to provide more targeted skill development in decoding.
- Students at tier three work in very small groups, and one on one in some cases.
- These students are at high risk of failure and may be candidates for special education services (Shapiro, 2016).
- Students receive services daily for a determined amount of time, typically in a pull-out model.
- Seeing Stars and LIPs are examples of programs that could be used.
Great kids. (1998-2016). Retrieved from http://greatschools.org
K12 placement tests. (2004). Retrieved from http://eprcontent.k12.com
Learning services. (2016). Retrieved from http://pearsonschool.com
Shapiro, E. S. (2016). Tiered instruction and intervention in a RTI model. Retrieved from http://rtinetwork.org