Is Canada he greatest city to live in?
By 2035, nothing would be the same, everything would have changed for the better or worse. Come 2035, I believe Canada will be the greatest country to live in. Canada’s population and immigration, climate and land-form regions, resources and global connects, and urban sprawl and cities will all change in a good way.
Age of the population- according to all scenarios the amount of senior 65 and up will continue to increase, this group would represent 23- 25% of our total population by 2036, compared to 14% in 2009 (more than double). There will be between 9.9 and 10.9 million seniors 65 and up. By 2036 the amount of seniors would surpass the number of children 14 and younger (a first time in Canadian history), and this is expected to occur between 2015- 2021. According to the medium growth scenario, the population that is 80 years and older in 2036 will be 2.6 times higher than 2009 (there will be about 3.3 million seniors aged 80 and up).
-According to all scenarios, the working age population out of the total Canadian population would decrease progressively till 2036. Only 60% of our population would be part of this age group, compared to 69% in 2009. In 2009, for every 100 people in their working age there would be 24 children 14 and younger and 20 seniors 65 and older, but according to the medium growth scenario, by 2036, there will be 26 children age 14 and younger and 39 seniors 65 and older for every 100 people in their working age.
-According to all scenarios, the median age by 2036 will be between 42 and 45, compared to 40 in 2009
-Population and age of the provinces and territories- in all scenarios, all provinces and territories will have an increase in their population. British Columbia and Ontario will have an annual growth rate higher than the national average in all scenarios from now till 2036. While Newfoundland and Labrador will have a lower population in 2036 than in 2009 under the medium and low growth scenarios.
-The highest median age would be found in the Atlantic Provinces while the lowest median age would be found at Nunavut and the Northwest territories. The gap between the highest and the lowest median age will be 8-10 years by 2036, this gap has slightly grown since the 7 year gap in 2009.
Canada- Canada will provide a safe and health environment to its new immigrants. Here in Canada we have a public safety department created in 2003 that ensures national security and the safety of all Canadians. Public safety Canada works with 5 agencies and 3 review bodies, different levels of government, first responders, and community groups to keep Canadians safe from natural disasters, crimes and terrorism by working in national security, boarder strategies, countering crime, and emergency management. They make sure the government approach to Canada’s safety is highly organized and prepared to face threats to national security. Here in Canada, we also have free healthcare (everyone with or without money can find have a way to treat their illness). In Ontario there is one of the largest and most complex publically funded healthcare systems in the world. It is managed by the province’s ministry of health and long term care (MOHLTC). It provides services through programs like the Ontario health insurance plan (a non-profit insurance for all Ontario residents in hospitals and health facilities), drug benefits, assistive devices, supportive housing, long-term care, health promotion and disease prevention. It also regulates hospitals and nursing homes, operates medical laboratories and coordinates emergency health services free for all Ontario residents. Canada can provide many things other countries can't, we care for their safety and health no matter who they are.
Home of the aboriginals- By 2031, geographically, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories would be the home to the most aboriginal people, approximately 52%. Provincially, Saskatchewan will be home to the most aboriginal people, at between 21-24%, and Manitoba will have the second most, with approximately 18-21% of the aboriginal population.-By 2031, 36% of the aboriginal population would live in a census metropolitan area (an area with one or more adjacent municipalities located around a major urban core), compared to the 34% back in 2006. Within 20 years from now, there will be 5 CMA areas where aboriginal people will take up more than 10% of the total population; Thunder Bay, Winnipeg, Regina, Saskatoon, and the Greater Sudbury.
Interactions in the physical environment
Canada’s landform regions- There are 3 different types of landform regions; the Canadian Shield, the high lands (The Appalachian Mountains, The Innuation Mountains, and The Western Cordillera), and the low lands (the Interior Plains, The Great lake –St. Lawrence Lowlands, and the Hudson Bay Artic Lowlands).
-The Canadian Shield is the geological foundation of Canada. I covers more than half of Canada and 2 small parts of the United States. After millions of years of erosion what once were mountains have turned into hills of rock that cover the entire shield.
-glacier have affected the shield in both positive and negative ways. The scraping and gouging actions from the glaciers created depressions in the bedrock. After many years, these depressions were filled with water, forming tens of thousands of lakes (water will not pass through the bedrock because it is impervious). The glaciers have also deposited sand, gravel, and clay which dammed the rivers, forcing them to flow in different directions. It was a disorganized drainage pattern of winding River, lakes, and swamps (make great water generated energy sources).
- The shield is the home to the world’s oldest igneous and metamorphic rocks, near the Great Slave Lake (up to 3.96 years old). These igneous and metamorphic rocks cover most of the shield. In these rocks there are minerals such as lead, gold, nickel, copper, zinc, diamond and other important metals in great quantities, giving the Canadian Shield a title as the storehouse of Canada’s metallic minerals. Sadly, these rocks do not have fossil fuels (when the rocks were formed these life forms did not exist). Even though there are no fossil fuels, the minerals alone attract many mining companies that create products that we use every day.
-the shield is an ideal place for recreation there are scenic rivers, waterfalls, lakes, rocks, and forest. People come here to fish, canoe, hunt, and “get back to nature”. This tourism industry is very important to the southern part of the shield.
The highlands- the striking mountainous areas to the north, east, and west of the Canadian Shield, all having their own geological history
The lowlands- all lowlands of Canada surround the shield, all of their bedrocks were formed from sediments of the Canadian Shield. These sediments were laid down millions of years ago; as sediments were collected these sediments were compressed making their current sedimentary rock bedrock.
-The Great Lake St. Lawrence Lowlands is the most southern region with 2 parts, the great lakes lowlands in the west and the St. Lawrence lowlands in the east. This region is covered by flat plains, glacial hills, and deep river valleys. These flat lands are perfect for transportation and development of cities. Today this region is one of the most densely populated; it is home to 50% of Canada’s population but only taking up 1.4% of land).
-the great lakes lowlands landscape was created by glaciers. The glaciers carrier huge amounts of till (soil, sand, gravel, clay) from the Canadian Shield, and dropped it throughout the region. The great lakes were also created by these glaciers, the lakes were gouged out by them, when these glaciers melted they were filled with glacier water and they much larger than they are today. After millions of years some of the water has drained out in to the ocean making it the size it is today.
-on the other hand the St. Lawrence lowlands was once a rift valley formed by fault. This valley was flooded during the end of the last ice age by the Champlain Sea.
-The Hudson Bay Artic Lowlands is a very flat, low area covered by swamp forests that surrounds the Hudson Bay and James Bay. At the end of the last ice age the Hudson bay covered most of the region, it deposited the sand, silt and, clay that’s makes its sedimentary base. This base sits on top of the ancient rock of the shield.
-this artic lowland is made up of islands located north with rolling hills. Sadly, its harsh climate does not permit farming (ground is frozen most of the time), but under the ground there are lignite (bad coal), oil, and natural gas.
Vegetation zones-The Tundra is the most northern vegetation zone, it is located above the tree line (northern boundary of most tree growth). The tundra climate is too cold and too try for tree growth. Most of the tundra has permafrost (permanently frozen ground). Only small shrubs, mosses, and lichens are able to grow in this region.
West Coast Forest is a temperate rain forest, its heavy rainfall and mild climate make excellent growing conditions for trees and lush forests of Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, red cedar, and western hemlock. There are old growth forest with trees over 50 metres high.
Cordilleran Vegetation- in this vegetation zone there is a wide range of temperatures, rainfalls, soils, and elevation throughout the zone. Vegetation can range from large coniferous forest in wetter location to grasses and cacti in dries ones.
Boreal and Taiga Forest- this is the largest vegetation region of Canada located south of the tundra (separated by tree line). Coniferous trees/ever greens grow in this zone, because they lose small amounts of needles each year and because leaching occurs, the humus layer is very shallow. This makes the top soil have a grey colour.
Grassland/parries-this vegetation zone is located in the southern part of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. The climate in this zone is too try for many tree species to survive, but some species (trembling aspen, willow, and spruce) grow in the eastern part of this zone in river valleys (more moisture is available).
Mixed forest- southeast of the boreal and taiga is a mixed forest of deciduous and coniferous trees such maple, beech, ash, oak, birch, spruce, fir, pine, cedar, and hemlock can all be found in the same forest (climate and soil are good for both types of trees). All these trees are excellent resources for lumbering industries, because of this very few trees are left in the southern part of the mixed forests (farming, lumbering, urban development, and transportation).
Deciduous Forest- here in Canada, we have a very small deciduous forest vegetation zone, located in southwestern Ontario (sadly our deciduous forest are declining because of farming and urban development). The conditions in southwestern Ontario (long, hot, summers and mild winters), are perfect for hardwood trees (maple, beech, hickory, ash, and black walnut).
Climate factors- Latitude- the farther away location A is from the sun (equator) the cooler the average annual temperature (the suns energy need to travel a far distance).
Ocean Currents- there are cool currents (Labrador Current and California current) and warm currents (gulf stream and north pacific current). When an air mass passes over a current the temperature of the air mass changes (temperature of air mass effect climate).
Wind and Air Masses- air masses tend to take on the climactic conditions of where it was formed, when it’s pushed through the land by winds (the westerlies of Canada blow west-east) the air mass bring the climate condition of when it was from with it.
Elevation- the higher you go the cooler it gets because when the air rises it expands and cools
Relief- when a moist air mass moves up the side of a mountain (windward) it expands and cools. When the air cools evaporation decreases and condensation increases. When more water vapour condense they become larger and forms rain drops, and they fall as rain/snow. When the cool air descends on the slope of a mountain (leeward), it contracts and get warmer, because most of the moisture was lost a rain shadow is formed.
Near Water- produces maritime climates and provides a moderating effect (there will be lots of precipitation, not a large temperature range, more precipitation during the winter).
Canada’s climate- Canada is a very large country, weather in British Columbia may be very different to the weather of Ontario. Generally, Canada has 4 distinct seasons (change in seasons is more noticed in southern regions along the US border. Here in Canada daytime summer temperatures can rise up to 35 degrees Celsius, and winter temperatures reach a low -25 degrees Celsius.
Toronto climate- here in Toronto we have a maritime climate with warm, humid summers and cool, dry winters. Since we are located near the great lakes it tends to affect our climate. The great lakes tend to provide us with a moderating affect (allows us to have warmer winters and cooler summers), and moisture (snow deeper than 1cm is seen 65 days a year on average; compared to 120 days in Ottawa).
Vancouver climate-Vancouver is known as the warmest of Canada’s metropolitan cities in winter, it has one of the wettest and foggiest climates, and winters are mild with little snow. Snow deeper than 1 cm are seen about 10 days each year on average, compared to the 65 in Toronto.
Climate change- from 1948 to 2010, the average annual temperature has risen by 1.6 degrees Celsius (mostly during the winter and spring of Canada), a higher rate of warming than any other region in the world. The whole country is warming, but most drastically up north (part of expected climate change). Climate will continue to rise, the distribution of rain, snow, and ice will change, and extreme weather events will occur (heat waves, heavy rainfall, flooding, and droughts) and since 11 out of 13 of our provinces and territories boarder ocean waters Canada may also be affected by the changing ocean environment (sea levels).
Northern Canada- over the past 50 years, the climate of the Canadian artic has warmed by 2-3 degrees Celsius at the higher altitudes (highest rates in the world), with the largest changes during the winter and spring. At this rate, the north could warm by 10 degrees Celsius or more by 2080, sea ice will continue to shrink, the Arctic Ocean might be ice free by 2050. Today, sea ice are thinner and breaks up earlier (during spring), glaciers, ice caps, and permafrost are melting, migratory birds are arriving sooner and leaving earlier, and storms are stronger than ever before.
Metro Vancouver- coastal flooding by global warming/sea level rise may affect Vancouver BC. The University of Southampton predicts a rise of 20cm- 40cm in sea level by 2050 (caused by melting continental ice sheets and warming seas). They created a list of 20 cities that were most at risk by a 20cm rise in sea level with no precautions taken, based on average annual losses to floods, is topped by Guangzhou, Miami, new York, new Orleans, Mumbai, Nagoya, Tampa St, Petersburg, Boston, Shenzhen, Osaka-Kobe, and Vancouver.
Managing Canada's resources and industries
Current resources and sustainable use- oil- here in Canada we have the Athabasca oil sands/Athabasca or Alberta tar sands which are large deposits of bitumen/heavy crude oil. These oil sands lie under 141,000 square kilometres of boreal forest and muskeg, and contains about 1.7 trillion barrels of bitumen. As of December 2008, the Canadian association of petroleum producers predict that the Canadian oil sands will produce 3.3 million barrels per day in 2020, compared to the 1.2 million in 2008, and total production from Canada will grow from 2.7 million barrels to 4.1 million barrels per day in 2020. Even with project cancellations in the future, Canada will still place among 4 or 5 of the largest oil-producing countries in the world by 2020. Even though production of oil is great for economic development, the production process is harmful to its surroundings, with its tailing ponds (toxic ponds that are leaking into freshwater sources), air pollutant (constantly adding harmful toxin to the air, producing acid rain, and causing global warming/climate change). Today, there are many alternative resources we can use that are more environmentally friendly such as bio-diesel blends, and electricity. Even if we don’t stop using this non-renewable resource (takes a long time to naturally replenish), we can use new technology to make it more environmentally sustainable, such as carbon capture technology (decrease air pollutants).
Freshwater resources- freshwater is naturally occurring water on the earth’s surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers, and streams. Freshwater tends to have low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. Sadly, 97% of our water is salt water, only 2.5-2.7% of our water is fresh water. We have such little freshwater left is because of our increasing population, long life expectancy (more and more people drink freshwater and need freshwater to live), and global warming/climate change. Most of our fresh water is found in glaciers and other places, if global warming continues these glaciers will melt and the fresh water will mic with the saltwater, and it will become saltwater. We MUST stop or slow down climate change and global warming, and stop doing things that enhances these issues.
Canada’s global connections-Canada is connected to the world through NAFTA and Globalization- the North American free trade agreement is between America, Canada, and Mexico. It allows free trade between these countries, since 1994. Today, 75.7% of Canada’s resources go to our partners(after signing the agreement Canada has traded 7 times more with Mexico than before), together we make the world’s strongest economy.
Globalization is the integration of people, businesses, and government in international trade and the exchange of goods, services, technology, culture, and information around the world. Sadly, globalization can be a good thing or bad thing. Globalization enhances economic growth in developing countries, makes nations interdependent, and allowed free trade to increase sustainable in the last 2 decades, but it also puts pressure on limited natural resources (we have already used up 33% of our available resources).
Transnational/multinational corporations are companies that extend beyond the boarder of a nation/country and have offices in many locations all around the world. Sadly these corporations also have positives and negatives. Transnational corporations provide cheaper products, worldwide job opportunities, high profits (corporations can make more than some nations’ gross domestic product), and help economies of some nations, but they also have wage cuts, exploit cheap labour, and have sweat shops.
Sweatshops are factories that manufacture good in unacceptable conditions (dangerous conditions, longs hours, child labour)
Issues we are facing and how to be sustainable by 2035- Transportation-The transportation sector is a definite emitter of greenhouse gasses that is continuously growing. In 2006, the road transport sector was responsible for 74% of global carbon dioxide emissions. In 2007 private vehicle operations in Canada alone emitted 70,774 kt of carbon dioxide! These emissions have risen by 3% since 2006, and 35% since 1990. This transportation sector is continuously adding greenhouse gases at a very fast rate (global warming and climate change). We must slow this down; instead of driving, commuters can try to bike or walk to the bus or train. Here in Mississauga we have MiWay buses and GO trains and buses that provide efficient transportation for bikers, drivers, and even walkers.
MiWay is constantly trying to work towards reducing the environmental impacts of urban travel, increase the use of public transits, and decrease the generation of greenhouse gases. All MiWay buses uses a bio-diesel blend (a renewable, clean diesel replacement) allowing these buses to only emit 25% of comparable emissions, since each bus can carry 40-50 people, up to 50 cars can be eliminated from the roads. In the end MiWay was able to avoid over 2,300 tonnes of greenhouse gases in 2013 (equivalent to taking 450 cars off the roads).
GO transit provides different bicycle amenities that allow you to travel to your destination without your car. At their Burlington and Hamilton station there are reserved bicycle parking, and at the front of all GO buses there are bike racks that can hold 2 bikes, on all GO trains there are also a space for your bikes (4 bikes can fit on each regular railcar, 2 bikes inside each set of doors) allowing you to travel without your car to most destinations.
Together-the Mississauga Transitway 2017, they make an ecofriendly and efficient transportation system. When complete, the Mississauga Transitway is expected to provide 2,000,000 annual rides (9,400 weekday rides, and 2,400 Saturday rides) it will be an efficient transportation system for all. Currently it takes 32-42 minutes to travel from Winston Churchill to Renforth, but after the Transitway is fully complete in 2017, it would only take 20 minutes. For all stations you can save time, up to 28 minutes can be saved from now, you will be able to spend less time commuting and more time doing the things you want to do. An efficient transportation system will emit less greenhouse gases; less time on the roads make less emissions.
Waste management- as urbanization continues more and more waste will be created. Since our city, Mississauga has already filled up our own land fill (know is the Brae Ben Golf course), our garbage must be moved to Warwick, Ontario’s landfill that is quickly filling up. Our garbage will just keep moving farther away as each landfill close by is filled. The farther we go the more air pollution will be created (global warming and climate change)
Carbon, capture, storage technology- This is a technology that can capture up to 90% of carbon emissions, it can prevent carbon from entering the atmosphere and can also remove carbon from the atmosphere. The CCS chain contains 3 parts capturing, transporting, and storing. First, the system separates the carbon from other gases by pre-combustion capture, post combustion capture and oxyfuel combustion. After capturing the carbon, it is then transport in liquid form to safe storage (geological rock formations deep under the earth. With this technology no matter how far we transport our waste in the future, the effects on the environment won’t be big.
Incinerator- other than taking away the carbon emissions, we can also decrease the amount of trash produced and create energy, by placing an incineration to burn the trash from our city (an apparatus that burns waste material, especially industrial waste) in our city. We can reduce the space needed for garbage, more space for urbanization, meet energy demands, and reduce air pollution and the use of gas.
Limiting urban sprawl- even though Canada is the world’s 2nd largest country, 80% of Canadians still choose to live in urban areas and cities. As our cities grow urban sprawl (the encroachment of urban centres into surrounding rural/farm land on edges of cities) begins to affect nature and us (we begin to depend on cars to get from one place to another). Since 1989 the greater Toronto area has developed 128,000 acres of farmland (9,100 acres each year), at this rate, by 2021 we would probably use 260,000 acres of Ontario’s best farmlands. We are taking over places that create our foods and turning them into homes (will loss natural resources and food sources, if we shipped them from other countries it would cost much more than when they are made here). Urban sprawl is also cutting into wild lands and green spaces, like bogs, which are begin drained and paved over. These changes put many valuable wildlife habitats and species at risk of extinction. Not only does urban sprawl affect out wildlife, it also affects us, we begin to depend on cars to get around. Driving/traffic creates pollution and is bad for our health. The longer we are on the road, the more carbon emissions/pollution, and the more smog. Did you know that a commuter that spends one hour driving each day (long distance from work/traffic congestion) have spent the equivalent of 9 working weeks in a year in a car. Researchers have also noticed that people that live in the suburbs spend less time walking and weigh up to 6 pounds more than those that walk more/live in a pedestrian-friendly neighbourhood.
Urban sprawl is a definite issue of Canada, we must find ways to limit this issue by 2035 by moving to a close home, and voice your concerns. When choosing a new home to move into you can choose a home that is within a 30 minute walk, bike, or transit ride from your work, school, or wherever you go often. If not moving, Canadian citizens can try to not always use your car to get around. Another thing Canadian can do is to contact their city planning department and covey your concerns or even ideas (ways we can redirect ideas to build out). There are many things we can do to slow down or even stop this issue before it’s too late.