Effects of ADHD

Middle Childhood

ADHD

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder effects both the social and emotional development of children in middle childhood. This disorder is where a person is not able to focus, overactive, unable control behavior, or a combination of these. For these problems to be diagnosed as ADHD, they must be out of the normal range for a person's age and development.

Incidence and Prevalence

  • more prevalent in males
  • 2%-4% in school-aged children
  • 1/3 have other disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, or other learning disabilities
  • becomes more prevalent in middle childhood when impulsivity is at a high

Symptoms

  • Doesn’t pay attention to details
  • Makes careless mistakes
  • Has trouble staying focused; is easily distracted
  • Appears not to listen when spoken to
  • Has difficulty remembering things and following instructions
  • Has trouble staying organized, planning ahead, and finishing projects
  • Gets bored with a task before it’s completed
  • Frequently loses or misplaces items

Causes

  • not positive of the cause
  • some say it is partly related to genetics and environmental factors
  • talk about preservatives in food causing ADHD has also been discussed

Impact on Early Development

  • often has trouble making friends due to behavioral problems
  • Hyperactivity can cause a child to play rough which also causes isolation problems
  • low self-esteem from sense of failure related to inability to concentrate and behavioral problems
  • school performance is often poor because teachers are not aware of how to deal with ADHD and class time is missed during principal office visits

Individual, Family, and Social Outcomes

  • individuals often become depressed due to failures related to school and behavioral problems
  • they tend to give up on goals because they feel they cannot be achieved due to lack of motivation
  • family gets frustrated with the child that has ADHD because of their lack of motivation, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and poor school performance
  • it is difficult to make and keep friends due to behavioral problems

Intervention

  • medication may not be the best option
  • effective treatment- behavior therapy, support at home and school, exercise, and the right nutrition
  • exercise gets rid of excess energy and helps a child focus
  • support helps the child know they aren't alone
  • give the child a stress ball or other soft object to squeeze in order to relieve stress and urges