Ben Smith

Congress Party

The Congress Party was India's national political party. Most of the members were Hindus, but at times it had many Muslim members.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Muhammad Ali Jinnah is the leader of the Muslim League. He wanted all Muslims to resign from the Congress Party. He believed the only thing in common with the Muslims and Hindus is slavery to the British.


Partition was the division of India into the separated Hindu and Muslim nations. The northwest and eastern regions became Pakistan.

The Battle for Kashmir

The small region of Kashmir lays at the north point of India next to Pakistan. There was a majority of Muslims despite the ruler being Hindu. Shortly after independence, India and Pakistan battled each other for the control of Kashmir. The United Nations had to arrange a cease-fire in 1949, which left a third of Kashmir under Pakistan's control and the rest under India's control. They are still fighting over the region.

Indira Gandhi

Indira Gandhi was Nehru's daughter and was chosen in 1966 as prime minister, and was reelected in 1980. She ruled capably but faced challenges such as the growing threat of Sikh extremists who wanted independence. Sikh bodyguards gunned her down, and her son took over as prime minister.