Heart murmurs

information on heart murmurs

Chambers of the Heart

your heart has 4 chambers, 2 chambers are called Ventricles and the other 2 are called Atria. these chambers work with each other, the Atrias are moving blood into the Ventricles, then the Ventricles push it out of the heart.

Valves of the Heart

your heart has 4 valves, these valves are Tricupid, Pulmonic, Mitral, and Aortic. these valves work together to keep blood moving in the right direction threw out the heart. the valves are in the heart to open and close with the pressure or the beat of the heart. also depends on what muscles are contracting threw out the heart.

pericardium of the heart

the pericardium of the heart i made up of 2 major layers. the fibrous the outer most layer and then the serous the inner most layer but then the serous layer divides into 2 other layers that are called the parietal (lies between the visceral and fibrous) and the visceral also known as the epicardium (outer layer of the wall of the heart). all these things work together of...

+ keeps the heart contained in the chest

+ prevents the heart from over expanding when blood volume increases

+ limits heart motion (keeps in one spot)

+ lubrication

Blood Flow

blood flows threw pulmonary witch goes to the lungs, then the systemic blood flows to the tissues all over the body. also you have oxygenated blood witch enters the heart from the lungs and goes out of the body, oxygen poor blood enters the heart from body and goes out to the lungs.



arteries move blood away from the heart, they mainly carry oxygenated blood, arteries have no valves, they have a think outer wall (can handle pumping more blood) has thick inner layer of muscles and elastic fibers, and arteries also has high pressure.


Capillaries are a really small blood vessel, they transport blood from arteries to veins, to explain how small they are red blood cells have to go single file to go threw them.
Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and wastes are taken out through the thin walls. and the walls are made up of endothelium (a type of simple squamous epithelial tissue).

Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is a force of blood against the walls of the arteries. also is the responsibility of blood flow from one location to another.
5 factors to having high blood pressure is=
+ blood volume= the larger the volume, the more pressure is exerted on vessel walls
+ strength of heart contractions= affect cardiac output, stronger heartbeat increase pressure, and weaker beat
+ heart rate= increase rate increase pressure, decrease rate decrease pressure
+ blood viscosity= less than normal decrease pressure, more than normal viscosity increase pressure.
+ resistance to blood flow= affected by many factors, including the vasomotor mechanism( vessels muscle contraction/ reflection)

major blood vessels of the heart

the major blood vessels are:
aorta= largest artery in the body. transfers oxygenated blood threw out the parts of the body.
left/right pulmonary arteries= carries de-oxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. on of the only arteries that can carry de-oxygenated blood.
Pulmonary trunk= begins in the base of the right ventricle, then branches into 2 pulmonary arteries left and right.
left/ right pulmonary veins=carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart,
superior / inferior vena cava= are the 2 largest veins in the body. carry de-oxygenated blood from various regions of the body right to the atrium of the heart.

Cardiac Cycle

a cardiac cycle is when a sequence of events when the heart beats. one cycle is completed when the heart fills with blood and the blood is pumped out of the heart. cycle is when it enters the heart, pumps to the lungs then travels back to the heart and is pumped out to the rest of the body.
systole phase= ventricles contract and pump blood out to arteries
diastole phase= the heart ventricles are relaxed and the heart fills with blood

Stroke Volume

a stroke is when only a certain amount of blood is pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in only one contraction. only two- thirds of the blood in the ventricles is released with each beat then normal.

What is a pulse?

a pulse is a rhythmical throbbing of the arteries as blood is pumped threw them. meaning how fast your pulse is that's how fast your heart is beating. pulse can be taken in many different places such as neck, wrist, behind knee, elbow and the ankle.

Normal heart sounds

Animated Aortic Regurgitation Murmur

What causes a normal heart sound

what makes our hearts sound the way they do is from the turbulence in blood flow and also the closing of the valves.

Blood tests

Hematocrit= screens for diagnose or monitor a number of conditions and diseases that affect the proportion of the blood made of red cells

WBC=white blood cell count, screens for a wide amount of diseases and conditions.

Platelet= number of platelets in a sample of blood, screen for diagnoses or monitor conditions that effect the number of platelets such as bleeding disorders and bone disease or other underlying conditions.

What could cause heart murmurs?

there are 2 types of heart murmurs. innocent and abnormal.

Innocent= blood flows more rapidly threw the heart, more common in new born and children.

* fever

* exercise


* high amounts of thyroid hormone

Abnormal= usually means heart problems, and heart defects. more common in adults

* holes in the heart

* heart valve abnormalities

ECG results for heart murmurs

ECG test will not detect a heart murmur because heart murmurs done inter fear with the impulse of the heart.

Heart murmur affects pulse?

the only was a heart murmur can affect the pulse is if there is a lack of o2 threw out the body. but no a murmur does not affect the pulse.

heart murmur affect srtoke voulme?

a heart murmur can affect stroke volume because of the way the murmur pumps the blood from one area to another, and can pump a lot or not enough.