Understanding Education Research
Chapter 9- Understanding Quantitative Results and Findings
- Every research study has results, which should be directly tied to the research findings.
- The goal of research is to answer research questions.
- The four types of research questions that are asked in quantitative studies are, characteristics of samples and groups, various relationships, tools used to test the hypotheses, and tools used to organize various relationships.
- Tools used to organize and describe research include samples and data.
- Sample Characteristics include two main issues, population and groups.
- Data Characteristics for organizing data are mode, median, mean, range, and standard deviation.
- Tools used for finding and evaluating relationships include frequency patterns, and correlational relationships.
- Frequency patterns are looking at common frequencies that form a pattern around two or more naturally occurring variables. This show a picture of how frequencies interact and exist, which shows what is actually happening within the research.
- Correlational Relationships look to see if two or more variables change systematically in relationship to one another.
- Tools for testing a hypothesis include t-tests and ANOVA.
- The t-test is a simple tool to compare means in the hypotheses.
- ANOVA designs are used when there is more than two levels of variable involved in the they hypotheses. ANOA can be simple or more complex with factorial and nested designs. These tests should be based on the research question.
- Regression Analysis is a tool for building and evaluating models.
Understanding Qualitative Results and Findings
- The four different types of Qualitative designs include discovering meaning, investigating, seeking social illumination, and participating to right some social wrong or imbalance.
- Qualitative research is based around orientations and strategies for presenting results. These orientations include thematic analysis and meaning discernment.
- Thematic Analysis is based on assumption that all the research is based on abstract ideas and themes. The themes are then analyzed and organized.
- Breaking down the larger themes is the goal of qualitative research.
- Grounded theory is the most used type of thematic analysis. It is based on a code being used to record and analyze data.
- Focus group analysis gathers data in a small and collective manner. This analysis helps the researcher understand a more interactional picture of the participants believes.
- Material analysis looks at what people own and display.
- Meaning Discernment is based on assumption that all qualitative data exist on at least two different level- what is certain, and what may exist at a deeper level.
- Phenomenological Analysis details how certain ideas or concepts function as part in everyday life.
- Portraiture studies not just what the person says or does, but also who the person actually is.
- Strategies for qualitative research include sorting and organizing, reflecting and synthesizing, and narrating.
Chapter 11- Understanding Discussions and Conclusions
- Researcher need to be not only present their results, but they need to explain what their results mean. This is the role of the discussion and conclusion section of the research paper.
- Summary statements include major findings, and interpretation of the research questions and results.
- There are two types of explanation statements. The first type is when researchers show how the findings match their hypothesis. The second type is when researchers explain why some of the results turned out how they did.
- Implication statements are statements that explain the potential impact the research results and research itself will have. Especially in education, research results can form policies and procedures.
- Expansion statements build on what kind of work that can be or should be done in the future. Many expansion statements explain what type of data would have been helpful and the types of research that should be done to aid in research efforts.
Shank, G., Brown, L., Pringle, J. (2014). Understanding education research; A guide to critical
reading. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers