Stoichiometry How To

Calcium Carbonate and Nitric Acid Reaction

When CaCO3 reacts with HNO3 it turns into Ca(NO3)2+ CO2 + H2O.

Type of Reaction

CaCO3 + HNO3 ---> Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O Is considered a Neutralization reaction.

Balanced Equation

CaCO3(s) + 2HNO3(l) --> Ca(NO3)2(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l)

IUPAC NAMING

CaCO3= Calcium Carbonate

HNO3= Nitric Acid

Ca(NO3)2= Calcium Nitrate

CO2= Carbon Dioxide

H2O= Water

Molar Masses

CaCO3= 100.087 g/mol

HNO3= 63.01 g/mol

Ca(NO3)2=164.088 g/mol

CO2= 44.01 g/mol

H2O= 18.015 g/mol

To find the molar masses of the compound just add the masses of the compound elements together.

Mole To Mole Conversions

This conversion is used if you know the amount of moles from substance x but you need to know the amount of moles from substance y.

EX: You have 12.1 moles of H2O, but need to know the amount of moles HNO3 has.

When you look at the balanced equation the coefficients show us the ration.

We use this ratio to setup an equation. In this problem it would be 2/1.

This means for every H2O Mole there is, there is an extra HNO3 mole.

To get the answer just multiply(or divide in this case its multiply) the moles given by the ratio.

The answer would be 24.2 Moles of HNO3.

Mass To Mass Conversions

This conversion is used when given the mass of substance x, and asking for mass of substance y.

The fist half of this conversion if the same as the mole to mole conversion, with three extra steps.

After you get the ratio from the coefficients you set the mass of substance y over one mole.

Limiting and Excess Reactent

This is pretty much is mass to mass conversions

However you have to do this twice once for each given Reactant.

The lowest mass that can be produced will be your limiting reactant, and the highest will be your excess reactant.

Theoretical Yeild

This is how much product will be made in a perfect conditions

Percent Yeild

Percentage Yield = Mass of Actual Yield x 100%

----------------------------Mass of Theoretical Yield

(Ignore the dashes i used them to center the equation)