Type 2 Diabetes

By: Noah Simcoe

General Information about Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, and happens when the body either resists the effects of insulin, or does not produce enough insulin to maintain a normal level of blood sugar.

When the body resists to the effects of insulin and does not use it correctly, this is called "Insulin Resistance". In Insulin Resistance, the Pancreas ends up making a lot of extra insulin for the body. Over time however, the Pancreas can't make enough insulin, and is not able to keep up with the body's demand.

After insulin stops working for the body (or stops being produced), glucose (sugar) begins to build up in your blood stream. The glucose has no way of getting into your cells, so they become depleted of energy. With all of the excess glucose (sugar) your the blood stream, you will start to have high blood pressure.

Type 2 Diabetes can be treated, with the right lifestyle choices! Glucose levels in your blood can be controlled with healthy eating, and just a little bit of daily physical activity. Read more throughout this website to learn more about Type 2 Diabetes, as well as the appropriate lifestyle changes that should be carried out!

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The Answer to your Symptoms...

Increase of Hunger- Sugar is not able to be moved into your cells, so your muscles and other organs are depleted of all energy, and are basically starving.

Increase of Thirst / Frequent Urination- Your kidneys are forced to work overtime to filter and absorb excess sugar (they cannot keep up), so the excess sugar is added into your urine, along with other fluids. You began to urinate more often, which causes you to feel dehydrated (you end up drinking more and more).

Slow-Healing Sores or Frequent Infections- Having high blood sugar impairs your body's natural healing process, and your ability to fight infections.

Fatigue- Your body's cells are deprived of sugar, and that makes you feel tired and irritable. You will also feel fatigue because of dehydration that's caused by frequent urination.

Blurred Vision- High levels of blood sugar can end up pulling fluids from your tissues, some of which in your eyes (affects focus ability).

A Healthy Diabetic Diet

Consume Less Sugars!

  • Sugar is the nemesis of diabetes, because it can spike your glucose levels. You want to make sure you monitor your sugar consumption.
Foods to Avoid
  • Syrups, Sweeteners, Soft Drinks, Candies, Cookies, Cakes, Jams, Preserves, Cereals, Ice Cream, and Frozen Yogurt all are foods high in sugars.

Consume Less Cholesterol & Sodium!

  • High Cholesterol & large amounts of sodium consumed elevate your risk for heart disease and stroke, because it gives you high blood pressure.

Foods to Avoid

  • Salted/Smoked Canned Meat, Bacon, Ham, Sardines, Frozen Pizzas, Canned Meals (ravioli, spam, etc.), and salted nuts all are foods high in sodium.
  • Cheese, Ice Cream, Seafood, Red Meat, and pastries all are foods with high cholesterol.

Consume Less Saturated and Trans Fats!

  • Saturated and Trans Fats make you overweight and increase your risk for heart disease and stroke.

Foods to Avoid

  • Butter, Animal Fats, Chocolate, Cheese, Fried Food, and Processed Meats all are foods high in saturated and trans fats.
  • Substitute with Lean Meats & Fish

Consume More Unsaturated Fats!

  • Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated fats can help lower your cholesterol levels, which decrease your risk of having high blood pressure.
Foods to Eat
  • Olive Oil, Avocado, Nuts, Salmon, and Seeds all are foods high in unsaturated fats.

Consume More Whole Grains!

  • Whole Grains are rich in fiber, and contain many beneficial vitamins and minerals!

Foods to Eat

  • Whole Grains of Bread, Pasta, Rice, Cereals, Crackers, & Tortillas

Foods to Avoid

  • Potato Chips, Candy Bars, & Packaged Snacks

Consume More Dietary Fiber!

  • Dietary Fiber helps promote the movement of material through your digestive system, and helps those who struggle with constipation or irregular stools.

Foods to Eat

  • Nuts, Whole Grains, Fresh Fruits (mostly berries), Beans, Greens, Peas, and Squash

Exercise & Lifestyle Plan

How lifestyle Changes Keep Diabetes in Control

The Benefits of Walking
  1. Lowers blood pressure
  2. Lowers your bad cholesterol
  3. Weight loss & Weight Maintenance
  4. Helps with Stress relief & better sleep

Avoid Alcohol, Smoking, & Other Types of Tobacco

  1. Drink Alcohol moderately, it causes your blood sugar to rise
  2. Smoking increases your risk of various diabetes complications

"A 20-30 minute walk can help lower blood sugar for 24 hours," says Tami Ross, a spokesperson for the American Association of Diabetes Educators.

Exercise Recommendation

The recommended workout for a Type 2 Diabetic consists of some form of physical activity for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week. Many people who have diabetes may not be used to exercising this frequently, but no worries. Starting slow and building your way up over time is a great way of getting back into shape, without jumping the gun! Beginners could easily start at 10-15 minutes a day, and slowly work their way up, by increasing their workout time at increments of 5 minutes each day. It's normal to try and do an Aerobic exercise on most days (like walking or dancing), but it's important to dedicate 1-2 days a week on Resistance/Strength Training Exercises (like weight lifting or yoga).

Helpful Biomedical Professionals

Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE)

A Certified Diabetes Educator is a health professional who has comprehensive knowledge in pre-diabetes, diabetes prevention, and diabetes management. CDE's educate and support client who have diabetes to better understand and manage the condition.

A CDE will work with you to create a plan for you to stay healthy. They will give you all the tools and support you need, in order to make the plan a part of your regular life.

Registered Dietitian (RD)

A Registered Dietitian is a trained nutrition professional. Dietitians work in many different settings, including schools, care facilities, hospitals, nutrition programs, community/public health facilities, and research.

Normally, RD's advise and counsel others on food and nutrition. They are able to explain nutrition issues to clients, approach the dietary & health needs of clients, create meal plans for clients, predict the outcomes of the meal plans, and promote nutrition by speaking publicly and through community outreach programs.


A podiatrist is a doctor or podiatric medicine (DPM), AKA a podiatric physician or surgeon. Podiatrists diagnose and treat different conditions of the foot, ankle, and related structures of the leg. This is helpful for diabetics because they may be experiencing foot complications.

Resources for Diabetics

Quotes from Paula Deen, a Type 2 Diabetic.

"I'm arranging my plate a little differently. The night before last we had fresh stewed squash, ham, fresh peas, and string beans with new potatoes. In the past I would have put loads of potatoes on my plate, and I would have buttered them and put sour cream on them."

"I'm just trying to rearrange my meals- low on the starches and carbs and a bigger pile of things that are almost free for you to eat."


Quotes from Sue, a Type 2 Diabetic.

"I exercise using a combination of yoga, stretches and walking mostly for my daily exercises. I also do a tightly controlled food plan."

"Slow down and take a deep breath, maybe two or three. Diabetes does not kill people. It's the complications of this disease that kills. Keeping complications to a minimum means gaining control over glucose levels by whatever means are available. "