By-Adin Mehanovic and William Andre Dotson Jackson
The rock Cycle
Compaction & Cementation
In sedimentology compaction refers to the process by which a sediment progressively loses its porosity due to the effects of loading. This forms part of the process of lithification. Compaction is used for making roads slimmer and smoother. cementation, in geology, hardening and welding of clastic sediments (those formed from preexisting rock fragments) by the precipitation of mineral matter in the pore spaces. It is the last stage in the formation of a sedimentary rock.
When large pieces of the earth crust collide some of the rock is forced downward at great depths and intense heat and squeeze the sedimentary rock to change it into the rock. There are also textures of a metamorphic rock, and these textures are foliated and non foliated. foliated means that the minerals are arranged in stripes or bands. Non Foliated means that the mineral crystals are not arranged in stripes or bands.
Igneous rock forms when hot, liquid rock called magma cools and solidifies. Magma is usually less dense than the surrounding rock so magma tends to rise to higher levels of the earth crust.Once there the magma cools and solidifies to become igneous rock.Most of the earth is composed of Igneous rock.
Grains of sand and other sediment are eroded from hills and mountains and wash down a river to the ocean.Over time the sediment forms the thick layers on the ocean floor eventually the grains of sediment are compacted and cemented together to form sedimentary rock.