Rock Cycle

By-Adin Mehanovic and William Andre Dotson Jackson

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The rock Cycle

First of all, what is a "rock"? A rock is a naturally occurring object that is made up of of one or more minerals and organic matter. The rock cycle is made of all the processes that make new rock out of old rock material.
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Erosion

The process by which wind, water, ice or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another In geomorphology and geology, erosion is the action of exogenic processes (such as water flow or wind) which remove soil and rock from one location on the Earth's crust, then transport it to another location where it is deposited.Erosion can lead to landslides. In nature large things break down, boulders become sand mountains become hills and thats erosion.
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Deposition

The process in which material is laid down.Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass. Wind, ice, and water, as well as sediment flowing via gravity, transport previously eroded sediment, which, at the loss of enough kinetic energy in the fluid, is deposited, building up layers of sediment.An example of this is a waterfall.
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Compaction & Cementation

In sedimentology compaction refers to the process by which a sediment progressively loses its porosity due to the effects of loading. This forms part of the process of lithification. Compaction is used for making roads slimmer and smoother. cementation, in geology, hardening and welding of clastic sediments (those formed from preexisting rock fragments) by the precipitation of mineral matter in the pore spaces. It is the last stage in the formation of a sedimentary rock.

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Metamorphism

Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have changed form due to heat and pressure. Meta means change and morph means form. There are three types of metamorphisms, contact, regional and dynamic. Contact metamorphism occurs when magma intrudes or forces its way into existing rock. The heat of the magma bakes the surrounding rocks causing them to change. Regional metamorphism by contrast takes place over large areas and is high-grade metamorphism. Regional metamorphism is associated with mountain building.Dynamic metamorphism is metamorphism that is produced in zones such as faults or thrusts that are under high amounts of pressure. The way that this form of metamorphism works is that rocks are scraped against each other causing them to be ground into a powder.
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Melting

What happens to a chocolate bar when it gets very hot? it melts. The same exact thing happens to a rock when it is heated enough. these extremely high temperatures can only be found deep within the earth. It takes temperatures between 600-1300 Celsius( 1,100-2,400 fahrenheit) to melt a rock turning it into magma(molten rock).
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Cooling

What would you do to turn a melted chocolate bar back to a solid? you would put it in the refrigerator. Same thing with magma. Liquid magma turns into a rock when it is cooled. Any rock that forms from the cooling of magma is an igneous rock. When magma cools quickly it forms one type if igneous rock, when it cools slowly it forms another.
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Solidification

Igneous Rocks are formed from the solidification of molten rock. There are two types of igneous rocks, intrusive and extrusive. Intrusive igneous rocks solidify beneath the earths surface. Extrusive igneous rocks solidify on the earths surface. The definition of the word solidify is "to make solid, compact, or hard.
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Weathering

Breaks down the minerals of the surface of the rock so that they can be transported away by agents of erosion such as water, wind and ice. There are two types of weathering, mechanical and chemical. Mechanical weathering is the disintegration of rock into smaller and smaller fragments. However chemical weathering transforms the original material into a substance with a different composition and different physical characteristics.
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Metamorphic Rock

When large pieces of the earth crust collide some of the rock is forced downward at great depths and intense heat and squeeze the sedimentary rock to change it into the rock. There are also textures of a metamorphic rock, and these textures are foliated and non foliated. foliated means that the minerals are arranged in stripes or bands. Non Foliated means that the mineral crystals are not arranged in stripes or bands.

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Igneous Rock

Igneous rock forms when hot, liquid rock called magma cools and solidifies. Magma is usually less dense than the surrounding rock so magma tends to rise to higher levels of the earth crust.Once there the magma cools and solidifies to become igneous rock.Most of the earth is composed of Igneous rock.

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Sedimentary Rock

Grains of sand and other sediment are eroded from hills and mountains and wash down a river to the ocean.Over time the sediment forms the thick layers on the ocean floor eventually the grains of sediment are compacted and cemented together to form sedimentary rock.