Rosa Parks stood up to a bus driver, and refused to give up her seat to a white person in Montgomery, Alabama. Montgomery was segregated. The seats in the font were for whites only, and the blacks had to sit in the back. but if the "whites only" section was full, blacks had to give up their seats for whites. She said she wanted the bus driver to know how unfairly they had been being treated. Rosa parks nickname was "the mother of the civil rights movement."
Jackie robinson was the first black person to play on a major league baseball team that was for all whites. He broke the "color barrier" rule to play on the Brooklyn Dodgers. He witnesses many insults because of his race, but the courage and grace he had handled all of that. He National league rookie of the year, helped the Dodgers move on to the National League Championship, got the MVP award, made it into the hall of fame, and went to the world series six times. He had great talent, but was still insulted by his race.
President Harry Truman
Harry Truman told the military to stop keeping whites and blacks apart. He wanted freedom and equality for everyone. He said that there is no real reason for discrimination because of their gender, race, color, your culture, and your ancestors. He also said he wanted everyone to have to rights to have a decent home, a good education, good medical care, a good job, and the right to vote.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. heard what Rosa Parks did and heard she was arrested so he he boycotted Montgomery buses. Then many people joined with him and this went on for about a year. Finally, the supreme quart declared segregation on buses unconstitutional. Martin Luther King Jr. became a leader of the Civil rights movement and lead us through it. He also lead us through all of the tough times during the segregated days.
Brown V. Board of Education
Brown V. Board of Ed. was a group of five people that wanted everyone to have equal rights and they wanted no more segregation.
They made a huge change in the civil rights movement.
The Brown V. Board of Ed. ended segregation in public schools.
Little Rock Nine
Little Rock Nine were the first African-Americans to attend an all-white high school in Little Rock, Arkansas. They challenged segregation in the South and won. Central high school still was a all-white school even know Brown V. Board of Ed. out ruled that law. But Little Rock Nine was determined to get the same education as the white people. On the first day they tried to get in, Arkansas government ordered the states national guard to block the doors so the black students couldn't get in. But President Eisenhower sent in federal troops to protect the students. But when they got there, they were still teased and bullied a lot because of their race. They went on to graduate, and challenged a races system and defeated it.
Thurgood Marshall was a civil rights lawyer when segregation was legal. During 1938 and 1961, he presented more then 30 cicil rights cases before the Supreme Quart, and he won 29 of them. but his most important cases was the Brown V. Board of Ed. He pointed out that "segregation but equal"-whites and blacks separate but they get the same education and get treated the same- was a myth. Blacks schools were actually very poor and treated poorly while white school were treated very nicely and were nice schools. The supreme quart agreed and said "separate education facilities are unequal". Marshall became the first African-American supreme quart justice.