Acids & Bases.

Carlyn & Allison

Acids

  1. Models Of Acid
  • Lewis Acid: Any substance than can accept a pair of non-bonding electrons.
  • Arrhenius Acid: Concentration increases whenever water is added.
2. What's The Difference Between A Strong And A Weak Acid?
  • In a strong acid, most of the molecules break up into solutions. In a weak acid, fewer molecules break up into ions.
3. Strong Acids:
  • Hydrochloric Acid
  • Sulfuric Acid
  • Perchloric Acid

Weak Acids:


  • Bananas
  • Tomatoes
  • Milk
4. physical properties:



  • sour taste.
  • blue litmus to red.
  • acids are electrolyte.
chemical properties:



  • reaction with metal.
  • reaction with carbonates.
  • neutralization.
5. you can use a pH meter; a pH lower than 7 corresponds to an acidic solution (pH goes down as hydrogen ion concentration goes up.)


Bases

1. models of bases
  • Lewis acid : any substance that can donate a pair of non bonding electrons.
  • Arrhenius acid : a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base.
2. what is the difference between a strong and a weak base?
  • A strong base is a base that dissociates completely into a metal ion and hydroxide ion in aqueous solution. A weak base is a base that dissociates only slightly in aqueous solution.
3. weak bases:

  • ammonia.
  • methylamine.
  • pyridine.
strong bases:

  • sodium hydroxide.
  • potassium hydroxide.
  • lithium hydroxide.
4. chemical properties:

  • OH-ions, combine with H+; donate electrons for sharing with an electron pair acceptor.
physical properties:

  • sour taste.
  • acids release H- ions.
5. you can tell if a substance is a base if it ...

  1. ends with an OH,
  2. forms OH- ions.

reactions

  • when an acid and a base react it is called a neutralized reaction. called a salt.
  • tums and rolaids contain NaHCO3 baking soda for relief of stomach acid.

measurement

  • the strengths of acids and bases are measured on a scale of 1-14 measuring the concentrations of pH and POh.
  • acids range from 1-6
  • neutral is 7
  • bases are 8-14
Big image

indicators

an acid indicator is a weak acid or a weak base.

  • methyl yellow
  • methyl orange
  • bromthymol blue
there are many different indicators

  • red cabbage juice
  • blueberries
  • onions
need to use the fluid, boil for several minutes until the water is colored then strain the solution.

to tell what kind of substance it is, if its blue its base if its red, its acid.

acid rain

how does acid rain form?


  • it contains high levels of sulfuric or nitric acids (pH below 5.5-5.6)
acid rain falls of trees and can make them lose their leaves, damage their bark, and stunt their growth.


New York State is where acid rain is the greatest, it occurs in highly urbanized & industrialized areas.

ways to improve the acid rain problem:


  • understand the problem.
  • conserve energy.
  • minimize driving.


Big image

commonly used house hold products for acids:

Big image

commonly used house hold products for bases:

Big image