Acids & Bases.
Carlyn & Allison
- Models Of Acid
- Lewis Acid: Any substance than can accept a pair of non-bonding electrons.
- Arrhenius Acid: Concentration increases whenever water is added.
- In a strong acid, most of the molecules break up into solutions. In a weak acid, fewer molecules break up into ions.
- Hydrochloric Acid
- Sulfuric Acid
- Perchloric Acid
- sour taste.
- blue litmus to red.
- acids are electrolyte.
- reaction with metal.
- reaction with carbonates.
1. models of bases
- Lewis acid : any substance that can donate a pair of non bonding electrons.
- Arrhenius acid : a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base.
- A strong base is a base that dissociates completely into a metal ion and hydroxide ion in aqueous solution. A weak base is a base that dissociates only slightly in aqueous solution.
- sodium hydroxide.
- potassium hydroxide.
- lithium hydroxide.
- OH-ions, combine with H+; donate electrons for sharing with an electron pair acceptor.
- sour taste.
- acids release H- ions.
- ends with an OH,
- forms OH- ions.
- when an acid and a base react it is called a neutralized reaction. called a salt.
- tums and rolaids contain NaHCO3 baking soda for relief of stomach acid.
- the strengths of acids and bases are measured on a scale of 1-14 measuring the concentrations of pH and POh.
- acids range from 1-6
- neutral is 7
- bases are 8-14
an acid indicator is a weak acid or a weak base.
- methyl yellow
- methyl orange
- bromthymol blue
- red cabbage juice
to tell what kind of substance it is, if its blue its base if its red, its acid.
how does acid rain form?
- it contains high levels of sulfuric or nitric acids (pH below 5.5-5.6)
New York State is where acid rain is the greatest, it occurs in highly urbanized & industrialized areas.
ways to improve the acid rain problem:
- understand the problem.
- conserve energy.
- minimize driving.