The Enlightenment

By: Taylor Bishop & Alexia Garvin

Part one

The Age of Enlightenment was a cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in late 17th- and 18th-century Europe emphasizing reason and individualism

rather than tradition.

Laissez-Faire is an economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from government restrictions, tariffs, & subsidies. This allowed business to operate with little or no government interference.

Adam Smith- he was a Scottish economist and philosopher. He supported laissez faire, but also believed that a government had a duty to protect society, administer justice, and provide public works. He's one of the key figures of the enlightenment and is best known for "the theory of moral sentiments" and "the inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations"

John Locke's ideas:

  • Humans are naturally reasonable, moral, & good.
  • Humans have natural rights: life liberty & property
  • People form governments to protect natural rights
  • Best government is one with limited power

Baron de Montesquieu: criticized absolute monarchy and admired British government.

Major enlightenment ideas:

  • Every social, political, & economic problem can be solved through the use of reason.
  • Governments are made to secure an orderly society
  • Separation of powers is the best way to protect human liberties
  • All men are created "free and equal"
  • A free market should be able to regulate trade

Part two

Francis bacon was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, essayist, & an author. After his death he remained extremely influential through his works. He had three goals; to uncover the truth, serve his country and church. He became known as a liberal minded reformer eager to amend and simplify the law. He also spoke against religious persecution. In his lifetime he:

  • 1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel.
  • 1607 – Named Solicitor General.
  • 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the Star Chamber.
  • 1613 – Appointed Attorney General.
  • 1616 – Made a member of the Privy Council.
  • 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office).
  • 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor.

Part three: Art

The way art changed during the enlightenment is that it moved towards Neoclassical forms with more renovated ideas. Before arts were just plain large and elegant paintings that had little amount of characteristics. The various paints that came along with this generation also incorporated many of the philosophies in their paintings. Literature was another form of art that changed a lot. At first people didn't read much but they went through a "reading revolution" that led people to read a lot more and purchase more books.