Chemistry of life

Tramaine Rivers, Nayim Wells

Water

Water is special because pure water has a neutral PH of 7, which is neither a acidic nor basic.



  1. Acidic is like the sourness of lemons.
  2. Basic is more like drain cleaner.



Adhesion and Cohesion are special because cohesion water is attracted to water and adhesion water is attracted to other substance


Polarity is special because its molecules has both a positively and negatively charged end. Its responsible for effectively dissolving other polar molecules, such as sugar and ionic compounds such as salt.



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Macromolecules

A macromolecule is a large complex molecule such as a Nucleic Acid and Carbohydrates.

Different types of Macromolecules:


  1. Proteins
  2. Lipids
  3. Carbohydrates
  4. Nucleic Acids


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Proteins

Types and Functions of Protein:



  1. Storage- Storage proteins carry important elements cells need. Hemoglobin is a vital protein that stores oxygen and red blood cells.
  2. Structural- Keratin and Collagen are most common structural proteins. Keratin forms the structure of the skin, nails, hair, and teeth. Collagen is involved with tendons, bones, muscles, cartilage, and skin.
  3. Hormonal- Hormonal proteins act as a chemical messenger. They carry signal through a system know as the endocrine and exocrine.
  4. Enzyme- Enzymes serve as biological catalysts needed for chemical reactions. Digestive enzymes help your body digest food, for instance.
  5. Immunoglobulins- This protect your body from invaders and foreign substances. Immunoglobulins acts an antibodies and they release in response as antigens recognition.
Examples:

  1. Collagen
  2. Titin
  3. Estrogen receptor
  4. Hemoglobin

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Nucleic Acid

Types and functions of Nucleic Acids:



  1. DNA- Genetics
  2. RNA- Have the instructions to make protein
  3. Adenosine Triphosphate- Energy


Examples:

  1. DNA
  2. RNA

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Carbohydrates

Types and Functions Carbohydrates:


  1. Monosaccharides- basic source of energy
  2. Disaccharides-energy
  3. Oligosaccharides-celluar sign post
  4. Polysaccharides-plant structure


Examples:


  1. Fructose
  2. lactose Milk
  3. colulose





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Lipids

Types and Functions of Lipids






  1. Saturated Fats-long chains of carbons with all bonds filled by hydrogens
  2. Cholesterol-cholesrterol is a waxy substance that provides your body with energy and is used to make hormones and bile acids necessary to help digest food.


Examples:


  1. Steroids
  2. Waxes
  3. Fats and Oils
  4. Fatty Acids


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Enzymes

Type of macromolecule enzymes are:


Enzymes are a group of proteins that help regulate cell functions.


Lock and Key- only one substrate can fit into an enzyme


Function- if there is an active site and have the same shape.


Activation Energy- the amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction.


Examples:


  1. Lactase
  2. Pepsin
  3. Sucrase


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