Civil War Battles
- The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War.
- The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war and is often described as the war's turning point.
- Union Maj. Gen. George Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lee's attempt to invade the North.
Dred Scott Case
- In March 1857, in one of the most controversial events preceding the American Civil War (186-65), the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in the case of Dred Scot v. Sanford.
- The case had been brought before the court by Dres Scott, a slave who had lived with his owner in a free state before returning to the slave state Missouri. Scott argued that his time spent in these locations entitled him to emancipation.
- The court found that no black, free or slave, could claim U.S. citizenship, and therefore blacks were unable to petition the court for their freedom. The Dred Scott decision incensed abolitionists and heightened North-South tensions, which would erupt in war just three years later.
- The Battle of Chancellorsville, fought from April 30 to May 6, 1863, is widely considered to be Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's greatest victory during the American Civil War.
- Facing an enemy force nearly twice the size of his own, Lee daringly spilt his troops in two, confronting and surprising Union Gen. Joseph Hooker.
- Lees's victory came at a high cost, however. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, one of his most trusted generals, was mortally wounded by friendly fire during the battle.