Brandon, Jevons, and Ron

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Russia wanted to extend their religious region into mid-Europe. The Holy Land was part of the Muslim Ottoman Empire but was also the home of Judaism and Christianity. In the Middle Ages, Christian Europe and the Muslim east had fought the Crusades over control of this land. However, the Christian Church was divided into numerous small denominations. The Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church were the two major branches of Christianity. Unfortunately, these main denominations could not work together. Both of them wanted to control the Holy Land.

Important Leaders

Crimean War

This war started as all the major players in the growing war wanted more influence in the Middle East. Religious differences between the countries also helped stir up the conflict as Orthodox Russia wanted more influence and reach over the subjects of the area, especially Turkey. However, the French believed that Catholics had more rights in that area. Due to the pressure that Russia was putting on the region, Britain responded as the area had a commercial and strategic value for them, whereas France responded due to their religious beliefs and prestige. At the end, the Treaty of Paris was signed with Britain siding with France.

Military Conflicts

Franco-Prussian War (July 19, 1870–May 10, 1871)- war in which a coalition of German states led by Prussia defeated France. The war marked the end of French hegemony in continental Europe and resulted in the creation of a unified Germany.

Austro-Prussian War(1886-1886)- also called 7 weeks war. Fought between Austrian Empire and their German allies against Prussia and their German allies. Austria defeated, Italy gets Venetia and Austrian Hapsburg excluded from German affairs.

Danish War(1864-1864): Denmark fought Prussia and Austria for control over Holstein and Laurenburg. War ended with the Treaty of Vienna, which allowed Prussia control over Schleswig and Austria over Holstein.


The Treaty of Paris was signed between Russia on one side and France, Great Britain, Sardinia-Piedmont, and Turkey on the other. Since the western European powers had fought the war to protect Ottoman Turkey from Russia, the treaty gave special attention to this problem. Russia guaranteed the independence and territorial integrity of Ottoman Turkey. Russia was obliged to give up Bessarabia to Moldavia, which along with Wallachia were reorganized as autonomous states under Ottoman rule. The Black Sea was neutralized by closing it's waters to all warships, and the Danube was opened to the shipping of all nations. In 1870 Russia repudiated the demilitarization of the Black Sea and began to rebuild its naval fleet there.

Personal Commentary

Russia has been very important for many centuries. The state became increasingly modern and westernized under the rule of Alexander II and his reforms were extensive. Although war seemed to dominate Russia, the country kept its importance throughout the world and moved closer to European ideas.


The Crimean War

A) demonstrated Russia's superiority over the Ottoman Empire.

B) was fought primarily at sea.

C) was won by Western nations because of industrial advantages over Russia.

D) led directly to the Decembrist uprising.

E) illustrated the skill of Russian generals.

In the Austro-Prussian War, what two countries fought?

A) Austria-Prussia

B) America-Britain

C) Northern Japan-Eastern Alabama

D) Virginia-Russia

What treaty ended the Danish War?

A) Treaty of Vienna

B) Treaty of Kavas

C) Treaty of Hong

D) Treaty of Ghent