Sarah Zimmerle

Photomicrograph of HIV

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Steps of HIV Replication

1. Binding and Fusion- HIV binds with CD4 and CCR5 receptors. Once inside, it releases its genetic material into the cell.

2. Reverse Transcription- The enzyme, reverse transcription, changes the genetic material of the virus

3. Integration- The virus' new genetic material enters the nucleus of the CD4 cell and uses an enzyme called integrase to integrate itself into the cell's DNA.

4. Transcription- The virus uses the cell to create more of its own genetic material

5. Assembly- An enzyme cuts the longer HIV proteins into individual proteins

6. Budding- The virus pushes itself out of the cell, taking part of the membrane with it (so it can begin the process again.)


- Antibodies

- Immunoglobulin