Unit2 Vocab

By Zimmeri Harrison

American Industrial Revolution

social and economic changes in the united states that began in the late 18th century involving widespread adoption of industrial methods of production

Laissez Faire

Government did not control wages or prices. It adopted policies to help industry

Robber Baron

A businessman who uses ruthless business tactics

Vertical Integraton

own the product from the start to finish

Horizontal Integration

buying out all of your competitors to create a monopoly

Political Machine

political machines were informal political group designed to keep power

Ellis Island

a small island in New York harbor that served as a processing center for most immigrants arriving on the East Coast after 1892


the majority of urban dwellers were part of the working class who lived in city cite or dark and cramped multi-family apartments

Ethnic Enclaves

here they duplicated many of the comforts of their homelands including language and religion


a preference fro native-born people and the desire to limit immigration restrictions

Gilded Age

the industrial revolution period was known as the gilded age was a term coined by Mark Twan meaning a layer of glitter over a cheap base

Social Darwinism

is a social theory that attempts to adapt Charles Darwins natural selection principles


was a process in which immigrant school children were taught english

Populist Party

was a movement by farmers to increase their political power

Gospel of Wealth

wealthy americans had a responsibility to donating money to further social progress

Social Gospel Movement

from about 1870 to 1920, religious reformers strove to improve conditions in the cities according to the biblical ideals of charity and justice


philosophy based on the Idea of Progress, which asserts that advancement in science


reform-minded American journalists who wrote largely for all popular magazines.

John D Rockefeller

in 1870 he established a standard oil, which by the early 1800s controlled some 90 percent of U.S. refineries and pipelines

Andrew Carnegie

Scottish immigrant who amassed a fortune in the steel industry

JP Morgan

one of the most powerful bankers of his era, j.p Morgan financed railroads and helped organize U.S. Steel

Cornelius Vanderbuilt

shipping and railroad tycoon Cornelius Vanderbilt was a self-made multi-millionaire

Thomas Edison

was the inventor of the Phonograph and Edison Electric

Henry Ford

was the founder of the car company Ford and excelled the assembly line

Samuel Gompers

in 1886 delegates from over 20 of the nations trade unions organized the American Federation of Labor

William Boss Tweed

leader of New York City's corrupt Tammany Hall political organization during the 1800s and early 1870s

Upton Sinclair

was an American author who wrote nearly 100 books and other works across a number of genres

Jacob Riis

was a Danish American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer

Theodore Roosevelt

, often referred to as Teddy or TR, was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States, from 1901 to 1909

William Taft

American jurist and statesman who served as both the 27th President of the United States and later the 10th Chief Justice of the United States

Meat Inspection Act

The Federal meat inspection act of 1906 (FMIA) is a United States Congress act that works to prevent adulterated or misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions.

Interstate Commerce Commission

ICC regulated railroads rates

Childrens Bureau 1912

formally created in 1912 when President William Howard Taft signed into law a bill creating the new federal government organization. The stated purpose of the new Bureau was to investigate

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

was a landmark federal statute in the history of the united states

16th Amendment

taxed off income tax (not off land)

17th Amendment

direct election of U.S. senators instead of being appointed

18th Amendment

prohibited the manufacture, sale, transport, import, or export of alcoholic beverages. Upon ratification of the amendment by the states

19th Amendment

the 19th amedment is the law to allow women to vote