Roman Republic

49 BC


Julius Caesar tried to maintain a legal position up until he was pushed to a limit and led his armies across and over the Rubicon. The Rubicon River was the border of his province so once he and his armies crossed it was the start of an automatic civil war. After he arrived he learned that the legions were in Spain, because of this the Senate and himself retreated to Brunisium from where he sailed East.

Caesar's accomplishments allowed him to quickly advance in Rome. He started up a Senate and declared himself is a dictator. With his campaign, Caesar publicized his upcoming policy of clemency. This meant that he wouldn't put anyone to death or confiscate anyones property.

Caesar took it upon himself to make the bold and unexpected move of leading his legions to Spain. By doing this Caesar was trying to prevent Pompey's forces from joining the East. After a continuing campaign, Caesar returned to Rome and was elected for consul and by this, legalizing his position.

Gladiatorial Games

Gladiators would fight to the death to have a winner, they did this for the entertainment of the high or upper class. Gladiator combat consisted three pairs of gladiators fighting to the death. In the beginning, gladiator combat was fought during the funerals.

Throughout time the gladiatorial games gradually lost their connection with funerals and became an important spectacles for politicians and emperors. These gladiatorial games would take place in the arenas. At one point in time these games would take place in the Roman Forum. The Colosseum was one of the most popular of all the Roman theaters.

Gladiators were unfree individuals who lived for the amusement of the upper class. Some gladiators were free volunteers who only became gladiators for the fame. Anyone who was a gladiator was beneath the law and wasn't considered a respected citizen. Each gladiator swore to an oath that each would fight until killed by the sword. Even though gladiators were looked down on with no respect, this oath gave honor to each gladiator.

Social Structure Reviews

Roman society sought out different forms of living. They would enjoy their everyday living with their religion, sports, stories, jobs, obituaries, theaters, and restaurants. I think that the entertainment brought by the theaters and the restaurants were to major social structures.

Leisure and entertainment would be held at theaters and other monumental structures. The theaters would taken place in plays. The theater greatly influenced drama and comedies. An Odeon was also a form of entertainment in a theater but was focused on musical performances and literature.

Restaurants were used for dinning out, this was one of the most popular leisure activities of the upper class. The high rulers or upper class would use the restaurants for political parties, banquets, and musical performances with a dinner. At Roman dinner parties, both women and men would dine together unlike the Greeks who would have them dine separately.

Opinion of Caesar

I think that Julius Caesar's choice to illegally cross the Rubicon River was risky but he succeeded with him advancing in Rome's Senate. By crossing the Rubicon Caesar learned of Pompey's legions and prevented them from joining him in the East, declaring to be a leader with no army.

Caesar worked his way up the political pole of Rome and after his short campaigns, legalized his position. Caesar was appointed head of Senate once he returned from Rubicon. In Senate he was declared as the dictator. I think that Caesar publicizing the policy of clemency, he had gained more followers.